Economies of scale - Wikipedia
Earth's Energy balance describes how the incoming energy from the sun is used and ~30% is directly reflected back to space by clouds, the earth's surface and The seasons also reflect the attempts of the earth to balance incoming and outgoing energy on a larger scale. Relationships to topics: Earth's Energy Balance. If so, do they get heavier the closer to the centre of the Earth they move, such Weight is the way we usually describe what the scales tell us, but our force of the ground pushing back on you as you're pushing down on the. In economics, returns to scale and economies of scale are related but different concepts that describe While economies of scale show the effect of an increased output level on unit costs, returns to scale focus only on the relation between.
The first eon in Earth's history, the Hadean, begins with the Earth's formation and is followed by the Archean eon at 3. The giant impact hypothesis for the Moon's formation states that shortly after formation of an initial crust, the proto-Earth was impacted by a smaller protoplanet, which ejected part of the mantle and crust into space and created the Moon.
Returns to scale
Present life forms could not have survived at Earth's surface, because the Archean atmosphere lacked oxygen hence had no ozone layer to block ultraviolet light. Nevertheless, it is believed that primordial life began to evolve by the early Archean, with candidate fossils dated to around 3.
MoonOrigin of the Moonand Giant impact hypothesis Artist's impression of the enormous collision that probably formed the Moon Earth's only natural satellitethe Moon, is larger relative to its planet than any other satellite in the solar system.
Radiometric dating of these rocks shows that the Moon is 4. First, the Moon has a low density 3. Second, there is virtually no water or other volatiles on the moon. Third, the Earth and Moon have the same oxygen isotopic signature relative abundance of the oxygen isotopes.
Of the theories proposed to account for these phenomena, one is widely accepted: The giant impact hypothesis proposes that the Moon originated after a body the size of Mars sometimes named Theia  struck the proto-Earth a glancing blow. It was enough to vaporize some of the Earth's outer layers and melt both bodies. The giant impact hypothesis predicts that the Moon was depleted of metallic material,  explaining its abnormal composition.
Under the influence of its own gravity, the ejected material became a more spherical body: The reds and pinks indicate rock from the Archean.
Mantle convectionthe process that drives plate tectonics, is a result of heat flow from the Earth's interior to the Earth's surface.
These plates are destroyed by subduction into the mantle at subduction zones. During the early Archean about 3. Turning off the burner is like the sun going down. Even though there is no more energy input, there is still energy output in the form of infrared radiation. This time delay is sometimes called "thermal inertia.
This emitted energy is reabsorbed by clouds and by the gases in the atmosphere. Some of it gets redistributed by convection. Even more energy is released into the atmosphere through condensation. The majority of the energy is reabsorbed by the greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor.
On a global scale, the atmosphere's circulation and weather is an attempt to balance differences in solar energy that the earth receives across the globe. Sunlight at the tropics is intense and direct and a lot of heating of land, atmosphere, and oceans occur there. Sunlight in the polar regions is weak and indirect and does not do a good job of heating up the region. Currents in wind and ocean water carry energy from the tropics toward the poles to help balance out the energy differences across the globe.
Seddon claims that arguments for an economy of scale are a mix of a the plausibly obvious and b a little hard data, brought together to produce two broad assertions, for which there is little hard factual evidence. This law has a direct effect on the capital cost of such things as buildings, factories, pipelines, ships and airplanes. Drag loss of vehicles like aircraft or ships generally increases less than proportional with increasing cargo volume, although the physical details can be quite complicated.
Therefore, making them larger usually results in less fuel consumption per ton of cargo at a given speed. Heat losses from industrial processes vary per unit of volume for pipes, tanks and other vessels in a relationship somewhat similar to the square-cube law.
A crude estimate is that if the capital cost for a given sized piece of equipment is known, changing the size will change the capital cost by the 0. Also, the efficiency increases with size.Immigration, World Poverty and Gumballs - catchsomeair.us
Many aircraft models were significantly lengthened or "stretched" to increase payload. This is because labor requirements of automated processes tend to be based on the complexity of the operation rather than production rate, and many manufacturing facilities have nearly the same basic number of processing steps and pieces of equipment, regardless of production capacity.
Economical use of byproducts[ edit ] Karl Marx noted that large scale manufacturing allowed economical use of products that would otherwise be waste.
Returns to scale - Wikipedia
In the pulp and paper industry it is economical to burn bark and fine wood particles to produce process steam and to recover the spent pulping chemicals for conversion back to a usable form. Economies of scale and returns to scale[ edit ] Economies of scale is related to and can easily be confused with the theoretical economic notion of returns to scale. Where economies of scale refer to a firm's costs, returns to scale describe the relationship between inputs and outputs in a long-run all inputs variable production function.
A production function has constant returns to scale if increasing all inputs by some proportion results in output increasing by that same proportion. Returns are decreasing if, say, doubling inputs results in less than double the output, and increasing if more than double the output.