Antony and Cleopatra - Wikipedia
If it is in fact the end, they will cross over into the final phase of relationship Rollie and Duck added a Resurrection Phase which was placed after "Grave Dressing" . a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE Studies Roman Funerary Commemoration, Roman Death and Burial, and Roman Infancy and Childhood. I am a Dressing the Dead in Classical Antiquity . is not always associated with a decline in satisfaction or with relational decision, on the part of at least one partner, to end the relationship. . () calls this the grave-dressing phase and suggests not only that partners () asked undergraduate students who had initiated a breakup with a roman-.
Divorce — Divorce should not be confused with annulment, which declares the marriage null and void, with legal separation or de jure separation or with de facto separation. Reasons for divorce vary, from sexual incompatibility or lack of independence for one or both spouses to a personality clash, the only countries that do not allow divorce are the Philippines, the Vatican City and the British Crown Dependency of Sark.
The Vatican City is a state, which has no procedure for divorce.
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Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy, Portugal, Brazil, Spain, Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, Andorra, Ireland, Chile, grounds for divorce vary widely from country to country.
Marriage may be seen as a contract, a status, or a combination of these, where it is seen as a contract, the refusal or inability of one spouse to perform the obligations stipulated in the contract may constitute a ground for divorce for the other spouse.
In contrast, in countries, divorce is purely no fault. Many jurisdictions offer both the option of a no fault divorce as well as an at fault divorce and this is the case, for example, in many US states. Though divorce laws vary between jurisdictions, there are two approaches to divorce, fault based and no-fault based. In some jurisdictions one spouse may be forced to pay the fees of another spouse.
Laws vary as to the period before a divorce is effective.
However, issues of division of property are determined by the law of the jurisdiction in which the property is located. In Europe, divorce laws differ from country to country, reflecting differing legal and cultural traditions, in some countries, particularly in some former communist countries, divorce can be obtained only on one single general ground of irretrievable breakdown of the marriage. Yet, what such a breakdown of the marriage is interpreted very differently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Separation constitutes a ground of divorce in some European countries. Divorce laws are not static, they often change reflecting evolving social norms of societies, some countries have completely overhauled their divorce laws, such as Spain inand Portugal in A new divorce law also came into force in September in Belgium, bulgaria also modified its divorce regulations in The negotiations with the participation of an advocate or agreement made before the registrar of Public Registry Office, Austria, instead, is a European country where the divorce law still remains conservative.
The liberalization of laws is not without opposition, particularly in the United States 2. Education — Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves.
Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has an effect on the way one thinks, feels. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy, in most regions education is compulsory up to a certain age. Education began in prehistory, as trained the young in the knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation, story-telling passed knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to the next.
As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom, plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE, after the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe.
The church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education, some of these establishments ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europes modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous, founded inthe University of Bologne is considered the first, and the oldest continually operating university.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek, aroundJohannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly. The European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion, arts, the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe.
In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age, formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching students. Usually, formal education takes place in a environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject.
Most school systems are designed around a set of values or ideals that govern all educational choices in that system, such choices include curriculum, organizational models, design of the physical learning spaces, student-teacher interactions, methods of assessment, class size, educational activities, and more 3.
Mourning - Wikipedia
Physical attractiveness — Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a persons physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful. The term often implies sexual attractiveness or desirability, but can also be distinct from either, there are many factors which influence one persons attraction to another, with physical aspects being one of them.
Physical attraction itself includes universal perceptions common to all cultures, as well as aspects that are culturally and socially dependent. In many cases, humans subconsciously attribute positive characteristics, such as intelligence and honesty, from research done in the United States and United Kingdom, it was found that the association between intelligence and physical attractiveness is stronger among men than among women.
A persons physical characteristics can signal cues to fertility and health, attending to these factors increases reproductive success, furthering the representation of ones genes in the population.
The perception of attractiveness can have a significant effect on how people are judged in terms of employment or social opportunities, friendship, sexual behavior, symmetry may be evolutionarily beneficial as a sign of health because asymmetry signals past illness or injury. One study suggested people were able to gauge beauty at a level by seeing only a glimpse of a picture for one-hundredth of a second.
Other important factors include youthfulness, skin clarity and smoothness of skin, however, there are numerous differences based on gender. Grammer and colleagues have identified eight pillars of beauty, youthfulness, symmetry, averageness, sex-hormone markers, body odor, motion, skin complexion, such studies consistently find that activity in certain parts of the orbitofrontal cortex increases with increasing attractiveness of faces.
The same study finds that for faces and bodies alike, the part of the orbitofrontal cortex responds with greater activity to both very attractive and very unattractive pictures. Women, on average, tend to be attracted to men who have a relatively narrow waist, a V-shaped torso.
Women also tend to be attracted to men who are taller than they are.
The Stages of Breaking Up
With regard to male-male-attractiveness, one source reports that the most important factor that attracts gay men to other males is the physical attractiveness. The degree of differences between male and female anatomical traits is called sexual dimorphism, Female respondents in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle were significantly more likely to choose a masculine face than those in menses and luteal phases.
However, womens likeliness to exert effort to view male faces does not seem to depend on their masculinity and it is suggested that the masculinity of facial features is a reliable indication of good health, or, alternatively, that masculine-looking males are more likely to achieve high status.
However, the correlation between attractive facial features and health has been questioned, sociocultural factors, such as self-perceived attractiveness, status in a relationship and degree of gender-conformity, have been reported to play a role in female preferences for male faces. In men, facial masculinity significantly correlates with facial symmetry—it has been suggested that both are signals of developmental stability and genetic health, in a cross-country study involving 4, women in their early twenties, a difference was found in womens average masculinity preference between countries.
The study reasoned that the advantage for masculine male faces must have been due to some factor that is not directly tied to female perceptions of male facial attractiveness 4.
Roman funerary practices - Wikipedia
Initiation — Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. It could also be an admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components.
In an extended sense it can signify a transformation in which the initiate is reborn into a new role. A person taking the initiation ceremony in traditional rites, such as depicted in these pictures, is called an initiate. Mircea Eliade discussed initiation as a religious act by classical or traditional societies. He defined initiation as a change in existential condition, which liberates man from profane time.
Initiation recapitulates the history of the world. And through this recapitulation, the world is sanctified anew. Can perceive the world as a work, a creation of the Gods. Eliade differentiates between types of initiations in two ways, types and functions and this real valuation of ritual death finally led to conquest of the fear of real death.
This phase is concerned with internal problem-solving and your partner is not meant to know about it. This stage can be long or short, but will usually include some discussion on how the relationship can be repaired if the other is willing to.
You may try new ways of dealing with their relationship issues. The outcome of this stage determines if relationship breakdown will continue i. You weigh your options and wonder what life will be like without your relationship and partner. You work out an explanation for yourself and others for why the relationship broke down.Romans Part 6 Relationships: Chapter 12 - Chapter 13
You then turn to family and friends for affirmation, support, and advice. In discussion, you will tend to blame the other partner or circumstances for the relationship ending; rarely will you focus on yourself. One in a dirty or patched toga would likely be subject to ridicule; or he might, if sufficiently dogged and persistent, secure a pittance of cash, or perhaps a dinner. When the patron left his house to conduct his business of the day at the law courts, forum or wherever else, escorted if a magistrate by his togate lictorshis clients must form his retinue.
Each togate client represented a potential vote: Martial has one patron hire a herd grex of fake clients in togas, then pawn his ring to pay for his evening meal.
Aulus Metellusan Etruscan man of Roman senatorial rank, engaging in rhetoric. He wears senatorial shoes, and a toga praetexta of "skimpy" exigua Republican type.
In oratory, the toga came into its own. Quintilian 's Institutio Oratoria circa 95 AD offers advice on how best to plead cases at Rome's law-courts, before the watching multitude's informed and critical eye. Effective pleading was a calculated artistic performance, but must seem utterly natural.
First impressions counted; the lawyer must present himself as a Roman should: He should be well groomed — but not too well; no primping of the hair, jewellery or any other "feminine" perversions of a Roman man's proper appearance. Quintillian gives precise instructions on the correct use of the toga — its cut, style, and the arrangements of its folds. Its fabric can be old-style rough wool, or new and smoother if preferred — but definitely not silk.
The orator's movements should be dignified, and to the point; he should move only as he must, to address a particular person, a particular section of the audience.
He should employ to good effect that subtle "language of the hands" for which Roman oratory was famed; no extravagant gestures, no wiggling of the shoulders, no moving "like a dancer". The left arm should only be raised so far as to form a right angle at the elbow, while the edge of the toga should fall in equal lengths on either side" By the time he has presented his case, the orator is likely to be hot and sweaty; but even this can be employed to good effect.
The manly toga itself could signify corruption, if worn too loosely, or worn over a long-sleeved, "effeminate" tunic, or woven too fine and thin, near transparent. With the exception of the Senators, free citizens and slaves wear the same costume. Augustus was determined to bring back "the style of yesteryear" the toga.
He ordered that any theatre-goer in dark or coloured or dirty clothing be sent to the back seats, traditionally reserved for those who had no toga; ordinary or common women, freedmen, low-class foreigners and slaves. He reserved the most honourable seats, front of house, for senators and equites; this was how it had always been, before the chaos of the civil wars; or rather, how it was supposed to have been.
Infuriated by the sight of a darkly clad throng of men at a public meeting, he sarcastically quoted Virgil at them, "Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam " "Romans, lords of the world and the toga-wearing people"then ordered that in future, the aediles ban anyone not wearing the toga from the Forum and its environs — Rome's "civic heart". By Pliny 's day circa 70 AD this was probably standard among the elite. Though probably appropriate for a "summer toga", it was criticised for its improper luxuriance.
Women could also be citizens but by the mid-to-late Republican era, respectable women were stolatae stola-wearingexpected to embody and display an appropriate set of female virtues: Vout cites pudicitia and fides as examples. Women's adoption of the Greek-style stola may have paralleled the increasing identification of the toga with citizen men, but this seems to have been a far from straightforward process.
An equestrian statuedescribed by Pliny the Elder as "ancient", showed the early Republican heroine Cloelia on horseback, wearing a toga. Higher-class female prostitutes meretrices and women divorced for adultery were denied the stola. Meretrices might have been expected or perhaps compelled, at least in public, to wear the "toga of motherhood" toga muliebris.
In this context, modern sources understand the toga - or perhaps merely the description of particular women as togata - as an instrument of inversion and realignment; a respectable thus stola-clad woman should be demure, sexually passive, modest and obedient, morally impeccable.
The archetypical meretrix of Roman literature dresses gaudily and provocatively. Edwards describes her as "antithetical to the Roman male citizen". In the public gaze, she was aligned with the meretrix.