Full text of "Principles of soil microbiology"
Trichonympha is a genus of parabasalid excavates that lives in the hindgut of xylophagous Trichonympha species are present in four termite families ( Termopsidae, Rhinotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, and Hodotermitidae) as well as the genus. Cellulose eating protozoa that live in termite guts. Trichonympha and the termite form a symbiotic relationship whereby the protist digests the wood in the gut. In this relationship, the fungus, with its strands of mycelia, cling to fungae, and termites with trichonympha all have beneficial original sketches and poems.
Symbioses in the Termite Gut
No one microbe in the termite gut can do the job. A whole community of microorganisms is necessary. These microbes belong to three groups, bacteriaarchaea and protozoans. Organisms that live with one another for long periods of time are said to live in symbiosis. The symbioses in the termite gut are often beneficial to both partners and so are called a mutualistic relationship.
Sometimes neither partner can live without the other, so the relationship is called an obligate symbiosis. The protozoans and the bacteria and archeae that live insided them often depend upon one another and cannot live without each other, so they are an example of an obligate symbiosis.
The bacteria and archaea that live inside their partner are also called endosymbionts"endo-" meaning "within. Bacteria and archaea are about a ten times smaller and appear as small specks in these photos.
None of these organisms have a color and are largely transparent. To photograph them without using dyes to stain them which would kill them we used a special kind of microscope that uses Nomarski optics to distinguish the microbes from the surrounding water. This gives three-dimensional images of the microbes. Photos courtesy of Dan Gage The protozoans come in a variety of shapes and move around rapidly.
These are their flagella that they use to move. They consume wood particles through the larger end of the cell.
RhymeZone: Sentences that use termites
They cannot break down the wood by themselves. They harbor bacteria inside them that do this for them and some of the chemical products that those bacteria produce are used as food by.
This is an example of a symbiosis or "living together". Personympha vertens or maybe Personympha minor? Since the termite only can absorb acetate as its energy source, acetogenesis dominates methanogenesis in the termite gut to reduce energy loss as much as possible.
But it appears to be that even small amount methane emitted by archaea-mediating metanogenesis are considered to be significant atmospheric methane source.
Cellulose degradation Protists reside in the termite gut ingest wood particles in the form of cellulose and degrade it within their cells. Cellulolytic protists known as Trichonympha and mixotricha produce cellulases and various glycolytic enzymes that can break down cellulose and convert it into an intermediate product, malate 2. During this fermentation process, ATP is also produced in the way and stored as energy available for both microbes and termite 2.
Current Research The current research on the metagenomics is studying the DNA sequence of the termite gut to identify the microorganisms living in the termite which can be useful to produce the biofuel in the future.
The identifying and studying microbes were the hardest part in the past, since only about 1 percent of the microbes were lab-cultivatable. However, the current fast and cheaper ways of gene sequencing methods have allowed microbiologists to study the other 99 percent. Scientist can extract the DNA from a certain sample, sequence that DNA, and derive the genomic clues to all microbes living in that certain environment. The microbes in the termite gut have ability to digest wood, such as converting cellulose into simple sugars that can be turned into ethanol by fermentation.
Recently, researchers at the Joint Genome Institute have just finished sequencing the microbial community of the termite gut and have already identify a number of novel cellulases which breakdown cellulose into sugar.Jared Leadbetter (Caltech) 1: Termites and Their Symbiotic Gut Microbes
Their next goal is to adequately modify and use the microbes to synthesize an ideal energy producing organism 9. References 1 Ohkuma, M. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, p. Noda Institute for Scientific Research, p. Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Wise, and Dennis T.
The Microbial Diversity of the Termite Gut.