Relationship satisfaction, Actor-partner interdependence model, Theory of traditional gender role attitudes to be only a marginal statistically significant . concerning household labor distribution, men's gender role attitudes may be a. Traditional Gender Roles and Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Men. 59 Table 1: Frequency Distribution of Participants by Demographic Characteristics. Gender role attitudes (GRA) have been identified as important predictors of scholastic outcomes. Traditional GRA is found to negatively affect.
Analyses are based on data from the UK British Household Panel Survey BHPS which allows us to look at men and women from three different working age groups 20—34, 35—49 and 50—64 at two different dates and Gender roles and attitudes: Egalitarian GRAs, in contrast, support equality in all domains [ 7 ]. More traditional GRAs are more common among men [ 7 — 9 ] and older generations [ 10 — 12 ]. Several studies suggest they may be also associated with greater psychological distress.
Another UK study found more traditional GRAs were positively associated with suicidal thoughts in early and late middle-aged cohorts [ 14 ]. Existing evidence on gender-related roles rather than attitudes is very mixed. Shared household responsibilities are more likely among those with more egalitarian beliefs and higher levels of education, and among childless couples where both partners are working [ 815 — 17 ], although there is some evidence from Sweden that the association between parenthood and traditional gender differences in household tasks might be changing [ 18 ].
However, some find no associations between the actual division of household labour and well-being [ 21 ]. Some studies have found associations between measures of actual or perceived levels of housework and marital satisfaction or well-being among women but not men [ 1923 — 26 ].
The role of paid employment, which among women is more likely among those with more egalitarian GRAs [ 27 ], is generally associated with lower psychological distress among both men and women [ 1928 — 30 ].
However, it is plausible that roles and attitudes should be considered in tandem, in respect of their relationships with well-being. In particular, consistency between attitudes and roles i. Surprisingly, none have investigated another role which might plausibly be linked with GRAs in association with well-being, namely marital status.
No such associations were found among men [ 1 ]. Several other US studies also suggest that inconsistency between GRAs and household chore division is associated with poorer well-being; most such studies have focused on women. For example, unequal division of housework was related to lower perceived spousal support and lower psychological well-being among egalitarian but not traditional wives [ 34 ].
Unequal housework division was also associated with perceived unfairness and poorer reported marital relationships, again in egalitarian but not traditional wives [ 35 ]. Another study found receipt of practical support in the home from a husband was associated with self-assessed marital quality more strongly among egalitarian than traditional wives [ 7 ], while among traditional, but not egalitarian wives, those whose husbands did more child-care than they had expected prenatally had higher levels of psychological distress [ 21 ].
A study of husbands found those with more traditional beliefs who performed fewer chores and those with more egalitarian beliefs who performed more chores had higher marital satisfaction than those whose beliefs and roles conflicted [ 17 ]. Finally, among members of couples with new babies or young children, marital satisfaction was lower for those with more traditional attitudes but more egalitarian division of household chores [ 16 ]. Among the smaller number of studies focusing on GRAs and employment status, analyses have also found conflicting attitudes and roles to be associated with psychological distress.
Among women with more egalitarian views, psychological distress was greater among housewives compared with those in employment [ 32 ] and those who returned to work part-time rather than full-time after childbirth [ 21 ]. Secular changes add further complexity and, as noted earlier, there is evidence of substantial differences in the experiences of people from different generations, even those not far apart in age.
Thus, in the UK, there have been major changes in patterns of marriage and cohabitation, family formation, education and female employment since the mid Twentieth century [ 1138 ]. Taken together, theory and findings on attitude congruence in marital dyads may mean that some couples exhibit similar views on gender roles, but others do not. Specifically, parents directly communicate their beliefs about gender by providing instruction, guidance, and training to their children Eccles, For example, children learn that women and men should act differently when they observe that mothers spend more time on care-giving and fathers, on leisure activities with their children.
From this perspective, parents should pass their attitudes about gender roles to their children, resulting in congruence between parents' and children's gender role attitudes.
A gender schema perspective, in contrast, emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes in gender development. Through the cognitive processes of identification and categorization, youth continually integrate novel ideas about gender into their schemas. Therefore, although a gender schema perspective also acknowledges parents as key socializing agents, from this perspective, youth act as producers of their own development Martin, Ruble, Szkrybalo,meaning that youth's gender role attitudes are informed, but not determined, by parental practices and the larger social world.
These findings suggest that, whereas some children model their parents' views on gender roles, others do not. Congruence and Incongruence between Siblings We know much less about similarities and differences between siblings' gender role orientations than we do about those of marital and parent-child dyads.
From a social learning perspective, influence processes should operate to produce similarities between siblings' gender role attitudes. When older siblings reported more egalitarian attitudes, younger siblings' egalitarianism increased more over time. In this study, however, evidence for a competing sibling influence process, termed de-identification, also emerged: When younger siblings reported more egalitarian attitudes, older brothers' attitudes became more traditional over time McHale et al.
Findings also revealed that sisters' attitudes were more egalitarian than brothers, on average, and longitudinal analyses indicated that the attitudes of sisters with younger brothers became more egalitarian over time. In sum, although empirical data are limited, there is reason to expect both similarities and differences between siblings' gender role attitudes.
Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes
Taken together, although it is likely to observe congruence in gender role attitudes across family members in the same family, developmental and family dynamics may also operate to make family members different. Our first study goal was using cluster analysis to identify distinct and meaningful patterns based on the gender roles attitudes of four family members— wives, husbands, and two adolescents— from the same families.
Conditions Underlying Family Patterns of Gender Roles Attitudes Our second goal was to explore the conditions under which family patterns of gender role attitudes emerged. However, previous literature targets some family conditions that are related to gender traditionality of parents and children: If we were successful in identifying subgroups of more and less traditional families, we would then expect significant differences between these subgroups in family factors, including SES, parents' time spent on gendered household tasks, parents' time with children, and the sex constellation of sibling dyads.
Family SES Evidence that socioeconomic factors may affect family gender role attitudes includes findings that women and men who have higher educational attainment and income express more egalitarian gender role orientations e. Consistent with a social learning perspective, children from more economically advantaged family backgrounds also have more egalitarian gender attitudes e. Parents' Time Spent on Gendered Household Tasks As noted, children learn about gender appropriate behaviors by observing the behaviors of their parents.
Based on data from a year panel study of US families, Cunningham found that parents' division of housework, measured when children were about one year of age, predicted children's later participation in household tasks in their own marriages.
Specifically, fathers' contribution to stereotypically feminine housework predicted sons' involvement in the same type of work in adulthood. Cunningham's findings, along with other studies on household task division e.
Non-traditional allocation of housework is likely to promote egalitarian attitudes within the family. Child care is a stereotypically feminine activity, and marks a less traditional family role for fathers.
- Associated Data
This may be especially the case when fathers spend time with daughters. As reviewed by Maccobyfathers-son dyads engaged in almost twice as much rough-and-tumble play as mother-son dyads in experimental settings.
Fathers also react more negatively to crying, fearfulness, or signs of feebleness in sons than in daughters. These data suggest that, although fathers' involvement with children, generally, reflects a more egalitarian gender role orientation, high level of paternal involvement selectively with sons may reinforce a more traditional gender ideology.
Changing gender roles and attitudes and their implications for well-being around the new millennium
Sex Constellation of Sibling Dyads A family systems perspective emphasizes the bidirectional influences between parents and children, and previous research suggests that children may influence parents in some of the same ways that parents influence children. McHale and Crouter have shown, for example, that the sex constellation of sibling dyads shapes gendered patterns of family activities. Studying two-parent US families with at least two children in middle childhood, they found that mothers spent more time with children than did fathers in families with two daughters, whereas fathers spent more time with children than did mothers in families with two sons.
That is, parents' greater involvement was predicted by having not one, but two children of their same gender. Given that fathers are more concerned about the gender typicality of boys Maccoby, and that brother-brother sibling dyads tend to spend more time with their fathers, we may find that they have more traditional gender role attitudes when compared to sister-sister dyads.
Changing gender roles and attitudes and their implications for well-being around the new millennium
Findings from McHale and Crouter's study also showed that children's involvement in household tasks varied as a function of the sibling dyad sex constellation. Older siblings generally performed more housework than younger siblings, but this difference was most pronounced in older-sister-younger-brother dyads. Further, in older-brother-younger-sister dyads, younger girls did more housework than their older brothers. These findings suggest that the presence of a boy and a girl in the same family affords an opportunity for parents to reinforce traditional gender role orientations.
As such, families with mixed-sex sibling dyads may have more traditional gender role patterns, particularly as compared to families with sister-sister sibling dyads.
Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes
Gender Role Attitudes and Family Conflict Our third aim was to assess the implications of the family patterns of gender role attitudes for the quality of family relationships. However, previous literature suggests that family members with divergent attitudes are less satisfied with their family relationships. If we proved successful in identifying subgroups of families that are characterized by congruence and incongruence among family members' attitudes, the literature generally suggests that there would be more conflict in families marked by incongruence.
Marital Conflict Marital quality has been found to be related to spousal similarity. Couples who are similar in values, leisure interests, role preferences, and cognitive skills tend to be more satisfied with their marriages than those who are dissimilar in these aspects e. Furthermore, based on nationally representative samples of US couples, Lye and Biblarz found that when couples disagree with respect to gender role attitudes i.
As Cook and Jones observed, couples with different values and attitudes may have difficulty in their relationships because they appraise events from different perspectives. Dissimilar wives and husbands may have to constantly negotiate and redefine their marital roles—a process that may generate new sources of disagreement and problems.
Parent-Child Conflict Only few studies examined intergenerational incongruence in attitudes and its links to parent-child relationships. For example, a limited body of research on acculturation has documented the existence of intergenerational conflicts due to differential acculturation of immigrant parents and their children e. Overall, findings suggest that when parents and children show marked discrepancies in cultural values and attitudes, they report more conflict and poorer relationship quality.
Comparable consequences may occur when parents and children have different views on gender roles. Like dissimilar couples, dissimilar parents and children may need to negotiate and redefine their roles in the family, which may, in turn, compromise parent-child relationships. However, it is important to recognize that in some instances children's divergence from their parents' attitudes is encouraged by parents Acock,and thus incongruence may not always result in problematic relationships.
Sibling Conflict Our review of the literature found no studies linking sibling attitude similarity with sibling conflict, and from a theoretical perspective, predictions are inconsistent.
Social learning theories highlight the role of a model's warm and nurturant behavior in observational learning Bandura,and indeed, some research shows that siblings with closer relationships exhibit more similarity in their behaviors McHale et al.
From this perspective, sibling conflict should be lower when siblings exhibit larger differences in their gender role attitudes. Study Objectives and Hypotheses The present study was designed to address three research goals. Our first aim was using mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born siblings' reports on gender role attitudes as clustering variables to identify groups of families that differ in their family-wide patterns of gender role attitudes.
We followed recent studies e. First, a hierarchical cluster analysis using a cosine index of similarity with average linkage was conducted.
Families were successively paired until all units were grouped into a common cluster. Hierarchical clustering was used here because nonlinear methods cannot represent nested structures within multivariate data Henry et al.
Second, a confirmatory factor analysis using the K-means method was conducted. To further test our hypothesis regarding gender role attitude patterns, we conducted a mixed model analyses of variance ANOVA to examine the between- cluster and within-group family member differences in the clustering variables.
Our second aim was to explore the conditions under which different patterns of gender role attitudes emerged by comparing family clusters in terms of SES, parents' time spent on gendered household tasks, parents' time with children, and the sex constellation of sibling dyads.
Here we conducted a series of mixed model ANOVAs and chi-square analysis to examine the between- cluster and within-group family member differences in these factors.
Our third aim was to assess the potential implications of family patterns for family conflict by comparing family clusters in terms of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict.
Toward this end, we also conducted mixed model ANOVAs to examine the between- cluster and within-group family member differences in family conflicts.