Motivation and emotion/Book//Blood donation - Wikiversity
Titmuss, Richard, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy ( ). Reprinted by the New Press, ISBN (reissued with new. Honored by the New York Times as one of the ten most important books of the year when it first appeared in , Titmuss's The Gift Relationship is even more . Titmuss () found that paying people money for blood donation actually negatively affected donation. Deci & Ryan The gift relationship.
In he published Poverty and Population, which focused on the regional differences between the North and South. Inhe published Our Food Problem. Around this time, Titmuss was also active in the British Eugenics Society. Inhe was recruited to write a volume in the civil series of the official war historyProblems of Social Policy, a work which established his reputation as well as securing him the new chair at the London School of Economics. In this process, he was strongly supported by the sociologist T.
At the LSE, where he was the first professor of Social Administration, he transformed the teaching of social work and social workers and established Social Policy as an academic discipline.
He also contributed to a number of government committees on the health service and social policy. His concerns focused especially on issues of social justice.
His final and perhaps the most important book, The Gift Relationship expressed his own philosophy of altruism in social and health policy and, like much of his work, emphasized his preference for the values of public service over private or commercial forms of care.
The book was influential and resulted in a study of the blood bank systems, specifically with regard to regulation on the private blood market exchange. President Nixon called for a complete study of the lack of coordination within the system only months following publication of Titmuss' findings.
For example, he was much criticised for his role as a vice-chairman of the government's Supplementary Benefits Commission which some critics felt did not allow him enough distance. He, by contrast argued in favour of trying to make inadequate institutions work better for the benefit of the poor even if his involvement with them had the potential to sully the purity of his reputation. He held his chair fromafter brief spells in the Cabinet Office and the Social Medicine Research Unit, until his death in Influence Some of his works are still read and some have been re-printed in newly edited forms exploring their contemporary relevance.
Many of the writings for which he is known were actually delivered as lectures at the LSE or when he was a much sought-after public speaker. Although several of these were later assembled as 'readers' or 'essays', he never completed a summary of his work or philosophy nor wrote a single magnum opus on social policy.
Consequently there remains some confusion in secondary literature on his precise perspective on key issues, either of sociology or public policy.
Like Titmuss, its current holder, Professor Julian Le Grand has been a government adviser on health policy. The debate regarding whether or not extrinsic incentives should be used has been going on quite a while. Despite this some studies found Titmuss to be correct that introducing monetary rewards would not increase the likelihood of donating among non-donors, and often people who prefer monetary rewards for donating are less likely to have ever donated.
Non-financial incentives, such as t-shirts, mugs, and medical tests is considered a commonly acceptable way to incentivize blood donation Niza et al. Non-financial extrinsic incentives are commonly used in Australia as well, such as snacks, cold drinks, stickers, key chains and more. Lacetera and Macis study which involved administering surveys to blood donors Italy, that financial incentives such as 10 Euros in cash would discourage people to donate but a voucher of the same amount would not.
A longitudinal field experiment that tested whether economic incentives really did have an effect on blood donations was performed by Lacetera and Macis However due to the explicit rules set by the U.
Therefore experimenters were required to use gift cards as the economic incentives. The study involved around one hundred thousand individuals and they found that informing participants of a reward dramatically increased donations, which the researchers suggested that this could be an effective way of gaining more donations during period of increased shortage.Valentines Day Special - Valentine Hacks & Adorable Gift Ideas For Your Valentine by Blossom
On the other hand individuals given surprise rewards uninformed of rewards before donating decrease the likelihood that they would return Lacetera et al. This result highlights the main problem with extrinsic rewards; if the person is motivated intrinsically to perform an activity and an extrinsic reward is introduced, this undermines future intrinsic motivations Reeve,pp.
Also another problem is the economic inefficacy of constant extrinsic rewards; it is very expensive and once the reward stops so does the behaviour Skinner, He suggests that in order to recruit more donors appeals need to use face-to-face solicitation, a personal reminder the day before planned donation, personally calling eligible donors to organise appointments, and have an opt-out system where donors are automatically given their next appointment after each donation and have to consciously decide not to give Piliavin, Also another non-tangible motivator is the awareness of the need for blood, as Drake and colleagues found many people weren't donating because they weren't unaware of the need.
The red cross in New Mexico successfully changed their paid donor system to voluntary by appealing to the public stating that blood is needed to save many lives and that everybody's contribution is important Piliavin, Theory of Planned Behaviour[ edit ] Figure 1.
TPB emphasizes that human behaviour is directed by personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control, that behaviour is determined by the intentions of individuals see figure 1 aka their explicit plans or motivations to commit a specific act Ajzen, For example, individuals are more likely to execute rather than neglect their intentions, such as if an individual sets up a plan to donate blood they're more likely to actually do it.
Therefore, as mentioned above applying non-tangible social pressure extrinsic motivations to motivate donations would be very effective in recruiting and retaining donors. Additionally Armitage and Connor suggest that in order to improve intentions to donate blood, we need to emphasize the moral issues surrounding blood donation, influence personal attitudes in the importance of donations by creating awareness of the need.
However in relation to planned behaviour self-efficacy was more influential in predicting intentions than perceived sense of control Giles, et al.
Titmuss and the gift relationship: altruism revisited.
Armitage and Connor found self-efficacy was the dominant determinant of intention and therefore represents the variable with the most potential for intention and behaviour change. Specifically, lowered self-efficacy is associated with fear of needles, lack of previous experience, perceived inadequate health status, and the perception that donating blood takes a long time Giles et al. To increase self-efficacy especially for FTDs Giles and colleagues suggest making the donation process as positive as possible by complimenting donors, thanking them and reminding them of the contribution they've made, providing positive feedback, and modelling successful donation.
Also through successful donations donors can increase their self-esteem by personal mastery of fear Bandura, It is very important that self-efficacy is supported throughout a donor's career to maintain their positive attitudes towards donating and encourage donors to donate as often as they can as this builds up a blood donor self-identity and blood donations become habit and intrinsically motivated Ringwald, et al.
From this theory the practical implications to increase both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are to recruit more donors by using social pressure, creating awareness of the need, and using techniques to increase self-efficacy e.
Motivation and emotion/Book/2013/Blood donation
Example Putting it all together[ edit ] The key elements to encourage more blood donations are: Use personal aspects to motivate blood donors. Make blood donations convenient. Distribute information aimed at dispelling misconceptions Fill in waiting times.
Support the role of the blood donor's identity.