Sudan–United States relations - Wikipedia
After decades of frozen relations with the United States, Sudan is poised to come in from the cold. Following the October relaxation of. Although Sudan has for some years been a solid counterterror partner of the United States, removing Khartoum from the SSTL is a complex. The United States-Sudan relationship is at an historic juncture, with the prospect of a broader normalization of relations with the U.S. coinciding with.
Calkins, a US embassy communications officer in Sudan, was shot in the head. US ambassador to Sudan, G. Norman Andersonvisited Mahdi to express Reagan's support for Sudan's democratic process and his readiness to assist the country.
On Octoberhe visited Washington but was disappointed when he could not meet President Reagan.
To maintain Sudan's independence and non-alignment stance, Mahdi requested the removal of US equipment light transport vehicles, hospital supplies, and equipment from Port Sudan. Even though Mahdi's government pursued a non-alignment policy during much of his tenure, relations with the US remained important, as Washington continued to be a major donor of humanitarian assistance.
Under pressure from Turabi, he instituted a radical, extremist, and ideological government based on the Sharia law. As was stated earlier, Bashir was a disciple of Turabi, the power behind the revolution. Bashir perceived this as unfriendly and accused the US of interference in the country's internal affairs.
The US responded by accusing Khartoum of hindering foreign aid distribution and seizing relief supplies. Consequently, given the existing political environment and tension between Khartoum and Washington, the Bashir government mistrusted US motives when the US proposed a peace initiative to end the north-south civil war. In MayBashir rejected US proposals for a ceasefire. His anti-Western stance, support for Iraq during the Persian Gulf war, and criticism of the presence of Western forces on Islamic holy lands further strained relations between the two nations.
In Februarythe US withdrew its embassy personnel and closed its embassy in Khartoum. During the Clinton administration, the US believed Sudan supported international terrorism and declared it a "rogue state" along with Iraq, Iran, Syria, North Korea, and Libya, placing Sudan on the state sponsors of terror list on 12 August In calling for the sanctions, the Clinton administration stated that "the policies and actions of the government of Sudan, including continued support for international terrorism, ongoing efforts to destabilize neighboring governments, the prevalence of human rights violations, including slavery and the denial of religious freedom, constitute an extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States.
As William Langewiesche remarked, "Scorned as fundamentalists by their opponents, the Sudanese leaders prefer a less loaded label — they call themselves Islamists. Since coming to power inthey have turned their nation into the second radical Islamic state, after Iran.
Their success in attaining power has had compelling effects on all of North Africa and much of the Middle East, where many countries teeter on the brink of their own Islamic revolutions. This has disturbed the West. In defending US action, President Clinton contended: I ordered our armed forces to strike at terrorist-related facilities in Afghanistan and Sudan because of the imminent threat they presented to our national security.
Our target was terror. Our mission was clear: The US further claimed that financial transactions linked bin Laden to the plant and that soil samples secretly collected outside the plant contained traces of EMPTA a precursor chemical for VX. Furthermore, the Sudanese contended that the bombing of al-Shifa was based on false accusations and poor intelligence.
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Independent tests conducted by the Chair of the Chemistry Department at Boston University, who headed a team to Sudan to investigate the plant, gave it a clean bill of health. His report concluded that based on the soil samples taken around the factory, and "To the practical limits of scientific detection, there was no EMPTA.
Khartoum called several times for a UN investigation into the bombing and argued that, rather than the US becoming the world police, it was in favor of a multilateral approach to global problem-solving through the offices of the UN. Some Wilsonian idealists would agree with this view: Stephen Morrison, argued that the US policy of unilateral isolation and containment of the Khartoum government failed to achieve desired results.
Throughout the Clinton era, U. Ambiguities persisted over true U. The United States pursued these multiple ambitions simultaneously, with little attention paid to whether regime change was achievable or how these diverse and seemingly contradictory policies would be reconciled. These ambiguities encouraged the mistaken belief in Khartoum that the United States was engaged in a covert war to overthrow the Sudanese government.
Why the end of US sanctions hasn't helped Sudan - BBC News
The ambassador indicated that Sudan would mobilize the Arab, Islamic, and African nations against America's trend of intervening in the domestic affairs of Islamic and Arab nations.
He insisted that America's persistence in intervening in Sudan's internal affairs was disguised under the umbrella of human rights. During the periods of the hostile relationship between the two nations, the US, through its Agency for International Development, provided millions of dollars for humanitarian relief efforts.
Thus, through the s, Sudan-US relations grew increasingly hostile as many American officials perceived Khartoum as the principal threat to US interests in East Africa. Inthe US prevented Sudan from succeeding Namibia as the African member of the ten non-permanent Security Council members, and defeated efforts to lift UN sanctions against Sudan, which had been imposed following the June attempted assassination of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Addis Ababa.
The culprits had fled to Sudan. As a signal that the US appeared ready to improve relations, the US abstained from the lifting of UN sanctions against Khartoum because it was cooperating in counterterrorist efforts, including the provision of intelligence. Khartoum reacted unfavorably following the passage of the Sudan Peace Act insisting that the US had passed one resolution after another to punish the government of Sudan.
On 13 Junethe House of Representatives passed the Sudan Peace Act intended to speed up the relief effort and achieve a comprehensive solution to the war in the south. The act forbade foreign oil companies with oil operations in Sudan from selling stock or other securities in the US. Seek a UN Security Council resolution for an arms embargo on the Sudanese government; Instruct US executive directors to vote against and actively oppose loans, credits, and guarantees by international financial institutions; Take all necessary and appropriate steps to deny Sudan government access to oil revenues in order to ensure that the funds are not used for military purposes; Consider downgrading or suspending diplomatic relations.
This led to six major accords between the north and the south, including the Machakos agreement separating church from state and granting the south the right to a referendum on independence after six yearsresolution of the Abyei conflict, security arrangements, protocol on the resolution in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile States, power sharing, and wealth-sharing agreement. Following a reassessment and a move to further strengthen the Sudan Act on 23 Decemberthe Bush administration signed into law the Comprehensive Peace in Sudan Act.
Besides ending the conflict and reducing human suffering, the Act was to stimulate freedom and democracy. Shift in United States-Sudan Relations: The only way to defeat terrorism as a threat to our way of life is to stop it and destroy it where it grows. Our war on terror begins with al-Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.
U.S. hopes for better relations with Sudan in - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan
We will starve terrorists of funding, turn them one against another, drive them from place to place, until there is no refuge or no rest. And we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism.South Sudan and U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Along the same lines, then Secretary of State Colin Powell reiterated: Classified as a "state supporter of terrorism," Sudan came to the support of the US by offering to clean out terrorist networks off its soil. InSudan also claimed it repeatedly offered to turn bin Laden over to the US but Washington refused. Instead, as Ahmed explained: Yet from throughMadeleine Albright and her Assistant Secretary for Africa, Susan Rice, apparently preferred to trust their instincts that Sudan was America's enemy, and so refused to countenance its assistance against the deepest threat to US security since Carney noted that American inability to seize this opportunity had serious implications for US national interest.
A case in point was the US embassies bombings in Furthermore, Carney added, the US lost access to a treasure of material on Saudi-born bin Laden and his network. It appeared the US was in an awkward position with its Sudanese policy as it sought to include a repressive radical, militant Islamic Sudan classified as a "rogue state" and a "state sponsor of terrorism" in an anti-terrorist effort.
This was the first high-level contact between the two countries in years. Khartoum condemned the attacks and said it would cooperate on the war on terrorism. Relations between the two appeared to have improved as the US encouraged the cooperation of Sudan in its fight against international terrorism. In fact, it has so far shared its files on suspected terrorists with the US and restricted their financial transactions. For example, it has disclosed the following: Sudan's mukhabarat, its version of the CIA, has detained al-Qaeda suspects for interrogation by US agents; The Sudanese intelligence agency has seized and turned over to the FBI evidence recovered in raids on suspected terrorists' homes, including fake passports; Sudan has expelled extremists, putting them into the hands of Arab intelligence agencies working closely with the CIA; The regime is credited with foiling attacks against American targets by, among other things, detaining foreign militants moving through Sudan on their way to join forces with Iraqi insurgents.
As a result, the US has sent security and anti-terrorism experts to Sudan. Sudan's cooperation on the war on terrorism signaled a new turn in US-Sudanese relations, which have led to the softening of the prevailing tension between the two nations. This policy was further enhanced as the US supported the UN's lifting of the travel ban from the country. Likewise, Sudan seized the opportunity to possibly be removed from the blacklist of sponsors of terrorism. Yet, this great achievement was marred by the ongoing Darfur conflict and growing instability in north east Sudan.
The Darfur Crises 39 The Darfur conflict, which began in Februarycomplicated international attempts to end the country's instability and kept US-Sudan relations tense. Since the fighting began, hundreds of thousands at leasthave been killed and more than 2.
Darfurians blamed Khartoum for the region's underdevelopment and neglect. The government reacted to the rebellion ferociously, using Sudanese Air Force helicopters and planes to attack villages suspected of supporting the rebellion.
The US declared that the Sudanese government's military forces and the government-backed militias, the Janjaweed, bore the responsibility for the Darfur atrocities, where a consistent and widespread pattern of violence had been directed against non-Arab individuals and villages. This greatly angered the Sudanese who saw this as "moving the goalposts" with regard to removing Sudan from the state sponsors of terrorism list. Meanwhile, humanitarian conditions steadily declined and the security situation worsened.
Currently, funds are urgently needed in Darfur to maintain the African Union AU force in the region mandated by the Security Council, to provide equipment and logistics, as well as sufficient humanitarian aid. Despite the ceasefire, Janjaweed and rebel attacks continued. The AU endeavored to bring about African solutions to African problems the move resulted in failure and absolved the West from interfering but the international community failed to support the AU by providing adequate resources as the AU was near bankruptcy.
A UN plan to send a man peacekeeping force into the region in December was rejected by the Sudanese government. The idea was to replace the exhausted African Union force which is small, ill-equipped, and poorly funded. However, Khartoum continues to oppose international demands for a UN peacekeeping force in Darfur. Bashir fears that the deployment of a UN force will be likened as Western invasion and that UN forces might arrest government officials implicated in the Darfur crisis.
Khartoum insists on no blue helmeted peacekeeping mission in Darfur but would welcome technical support staff by the UN that would not engage in peacekeeping operations. Unfortunately, the ongoing opposition resulted in delays in the deployment of a UN force mandated to protect civilians under the UN charter. The DPA was the first step toward ending the violence in the region.
Consequentially, the fragile DPA fell apart, and failed to end the fighting but accelerated the violence. In addition, Kenneth H. Bacon, president of the advocacy group Refugees International informed President Bush: This had the effect of further alienating many Darfurians from Khartoum.
Our lives have only gotten worse since it was signed. Bush also cautioned Minnawi that his force "must refrain from instigating violence. Government, leading to Sudan's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism and a suspension of U. Embassy operations in Khartoum in In Octoberthe U.
In Auguston accusations of manufacturing chemical weaponsthe U. The owner of the factory took the case to court demanding compensation, as U. Ambassador to the Sudan, Ambassador Tim Carneydeparted post prior to this event and no new ambassador has been designated since.
Embassy is headed by a charge d'affaires. Sudan has provided concrete cooperation against international terrorism since the September 11 attacks in on New York and Washington.
However, although Sudan publicly supported the international coalition actions against the al Qaida network and the Taliban in Afghanistan, the government criticized the U. Sudan remains on the state sponsors of terrorism list. Bythe United States had another strategic interests in the African continent due to the presence of oil. Darfur and Kordofan"may be the areas richest in oil in the entire country. Further, Sudan shares a two-hundred-plus mile border with restive Libya and nearly eight hundred miles of border with Egypt, two countries with which the United States maintains serious national security concerns.
Recent History In Januarythe administration of former US President Barack Obama lifted comprehensive economic sanctions on Sudan for six months until the new Trump administration could make its own, final determination. The initial January decision followed more than six months of quiet talks with the Sudanese government, a vital trust-building exercise in a bilateral relationship previously characterized by mistrust and disappointment. When the Obama administration determined that Sudan had delivered on all five itemsmany sanctions were lifted.
The Trump administration built on this momentum when, after three months of delay, it permanently lifted sanctions in October Many in Washington agree on the necessity of a next phase of relations, but few agree on what it should contain.
To this end, the recently-released Sudan Task Force reports offer recommendations to the Trump administration on the content of a second phase of engagement. The reports recommend that the United States dispatch a Senate-confirmed ambassador to Sudan as quickly as possible; the last accredited ambassador to Sudan left in At the same time, it recommends that Sudan undertake a series of political and economic reforms, including creating a more enabling environment for political participation, strengthening protections of minority rights, adhering to United Nations UN sanctions on North Korea, and eliminating economic distortions.
Striking a balance in the new roadmap will not be easy.