The study group was assessed for the several occlusal parameters, which included primary molar and canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite. Precociously Erupted Primary Teeth Natal tooth Neonatal teeth . Canine relationship Relationship of maxillary & mandibular. Primary canine relationship was evaluated and recorded as class 1: the tip of the maxillary primary canine tooth is in the same vertical plane as.
The lack of such statistical data of the Indian population in Udaipur prompted us to undertake this study. These findings are concurrent with those of a study of a Saudi Arabian population 11 and almost similar to that of a study of a Jordanian population, 13 in which mesial step was most commonly observed and distal step molar relationship was least common.
No class III or cusp-to-cusp canine relationship was observed. The prevalence of class II relationship was higher in 3 year olds than in the 5 year age group, whereas that of class III was lower, but neither difference was statistically significant.
These results concur with those reported by studies on Saudi Arabian 11 and Jordanian children.
Anterior crossbite relationship was observed only in 0. These results are in accordance with the results of previous studies on English 3 and Saudi Arabian 11 populations, but lower than that reported in Finnish, African-American, 10 and Jordanian 13 populations.
Characteristics of occlusion in primary dentition of preschool children of Udaipur, India
This is a lower prevalence than that reported by other studies, including one on Jordanian children. Although the results suggest a low prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition of this population, further studies on a larger sample of the same population are warranted, as are studies on children from other states of India.
Flush terminal plane was more common at 3—4 years of age, mesial step at 4—5 years, and class I canine relationship in both age groups. The prevalence of overjet less than 1 mm and overjet exceeding 1 mm was almost comparable in both groups. Physiologic and primate spacing were observed more frequently in the 4—5 year group, while two-segment crowding was more common in the 3—4 year group.
The present study provides hitherto unavailable data pertaining to the state of dentition, occlusal pattern and spacing, and crowding in the primary dentition of a group of Indian children of Udaipur. The other half can be obtained from the leeway space, which allows greater mesial movement of the mandibular than the maxillary molar. Only a modest change in molar relationship can be produced by this combination of differential growth of the jaws and differential forward movement of the lower molar.
It must be kept in mind that the changes described here are those that happen to a child experiencing a normal growth pattern. There is no guarantee in any given individual that differential forward growth of the mandible will occur, nor that the leeway space will close in a way that moves the lower molar relatively forward.
The possibilities for the transition in molar relationship from the mixed to the early permanent dentition are summarized in Fig.
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Note that the transition is usually accompanied by a one-half cusp 3 to 4 mm relative forward movement of the lower molar, accomplished by a combination of differential growth and tooth movement. A child's initial distal step relationship may change during the transition to an end-to-end one-half cusp Class II relationship in the permanent dentition, but is not likely to be corrected all the way to a Class I.
It is also possible that the pattern of growth will not lead to greater prominence of the mandible, in which case the molar relationship in the permanent dentition probably will remain a full cusp Class II. Similarly, a flush terminal plane relationship, which produces an end-to-end relationship of the permanent molars when they first erupt, can change to Class I in the permanent dentition, but can remain end-to-end in the permanent dentition if the growth pattern is not favorable.
Finally, a child who has experienced early mandibular growth may have a mesial step relationship in the primary molars, producing a Class I molar relationship at an early age. It is quite possible for this mesial step relationship to progress to a half-cusp Class III during the molar transition with continued mandibular growth. On the other hand, if differential mandibular growth no longer occurs, the mesial step relationship at an early age may simply become a Class I relationship later.
For any given child, the odds are that the normal growth pattern will prevail, and that there will be a one-half cusp transition in the molar relationship at the time the second primary molars are lost. The primary canine relationships were categorized as: Study groups After clinical assessments, and based on the inclusion criteria, the children were divided into 4 groups: Statistical methods For statistical purposes, normal overjet and Class 1 canine relationship were analyzed in relation to increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship, respectively, since these malocclusions may be associated to sucking behaviors in childhood.
G1 not bottle-fedbreast-feeding for less than 6 months, male, and no history of nonnutritive suckinghabits. The significance level was set at 0. Results Reliability of the occlusal assessments Three calibrated dentists, who were unaware of the questionnaire data, performed the clinical examinations. Training and calibration involved occlusal examination of 24 children who were not included in the study sample on two different occasions, with a day interval between the first and second assessments.
Spearman correlation coefficient values Rs greater than 0.
The frequencies of boys and girls in the study groups presented small variations, except for G1 and G3. The percentage of girls in G1 was higher The opposite was observed in G3, since Most of the children were 4 Bottle feeding versus increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship In the total sample, normal overjet was the most prevalent feature Only 16 children 1.
A Class 1 canine relationship, considered as the satisfactory pattern in the primary dentition, also occurred in more than half of the sample Although the prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship were higher in G2, G3 and G4 bottle-fed children than in G1 not bottle-fed childrenno significant effect of bottle feeding was found Tables 1 and 2.
No significant differences were observed between subgroups of children who received exclusive breast-feeding for periods shorter than, equal to or longer than 6 months and genders Tables 1 and 2.
Nonetheless, nonnutritive sucking habits were significantly associated with higher frequencies of increased overjet and a Class 2 primary canine relationship.
A similar finding was observed for Class 2 canine relationship Table 2. Discussion No significant associations were demonstrated between bottle feeding and high prevalence rates of the malocclusions studied Tables 1 and 2. Although bottle feeding, even among breast-fed children, may interfere negatively with orofacial development,6 this infant feeding method seems not to be directly associated with some types of malocclusions.
A study conducted in a subsample of children aged years with no history of nonnutritive sucking habits found no significant associations between the presence of an overjet greater than 3 mm and bottle feeding.
Exclusive bottle feeding may be related to inadequate muscular stimuli for proper mandibular development. Bottle feeding was found to be strongly connected to pacifier use between 3 and 4 years of age. Many authors agree that nonnutritive sucking habits, even of a short duration, may have an indirect effect through their association with an abnormal swallowing pattern, as well as a direct influence in the etiology of malocclusions.
Accordingly, an atypical swallowing pattern at years of age was significantly correlated with a morphological malocclusion severity score at 12 years of age. At an older age, malocclusion severity is also related to incorrect orofacial functions at an early stage of dental development.