Polish ottoman relationship

The Polish Nobility's Attitude to Turkey in the 17th and 18th centuries

polish ottoman relationship

Polish–Turkish relations are foreign relations between Poland and Turkey. Poland has an embassy in Ankara, and a general consulate in Istanbul. Turkey has. May 13, Historically we had excellent relations with Lehistan (Poland) as it was a decimated Ottoman army from behind before the gates of Vienna. Oct 9, Poland and Turkey have a long, tumultuous common history, and in its honour The history of Polish-Turkish relations dates back to , four.

Polish Kings also asserted historic claims to sovereignty over Moldavia, which became an Ottoman vassal for the first time, though with subsequent interruption, in Powerful members of the magnateria of Poland-Lithuania were related by blood to ruling families of the Ottoman vassal polities of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania.

The Ottoman Empire created its own inroads to exert considerable influence over the internal politics of Poland-Lithuania, particularly after the death of the Jagiellonian dynasty and the institution of an elected kingship.

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Rival proFrench and proHabsburg elements within the Polish-Lithuanian citizenry and aristocracy paid close attention to Ottoman reactions during their elective processes. The early elections of Henry Valois r. While Polish rulers and notables maintained constant contact with the Sublime Porte and its clients in the Crimean Khanate, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, daily contact between the inhabitants of these polities and their clients occurred along their 1, kilometer-long mutual frontier.

Poles and Turks, six centuries on

The confluence of these social and natural factors created a frontier both deep and broad hosting the growth of liminal societies such as the Cossack brotherhoods and the Nogai Tatars. Vast open spaces and relatively low population density, as well as the extreme distance separating this frontier from the capitals of the Empire and the Commonwealth, meant that peripheral power brokers, vassal polities, and client groups assumed more independent roles than their counterparts in other early modern European frontier contexts.

Despite the prevailing peaceful relations enjoyed by Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, their mutual frontier was the locus of endemic violence, involving vassal polities, client populations, and militarized segments of both Commonwealth and Ottoman societies.

polish ottoman relationship

Polish and Turkish historiographies have separately identified the events of this period related to this frontier as being critical to powerful decline paradigms related to the late 18th c. Romanian and Ukrainian historiographies have also identified events of this period as being critical to nascent national formations- specifically the rebellion of Vlach leader Mihai Viteazul and Zaporozhian Cossack uprisings. Modern Polish historiography maintains the narrative that the Ottoman Empire was the only state that did not recognize the final partition of Poland-Lithuania in by its neighbouring states: Russia, Prussia and Austria.

The partition and disappearance of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in and the subsequent strengthening of its neighbours, especially Russia, did not go unnoticed in the Ottoman Empire.

polish ottoman relationship

The catastrophic fate of the northern neighbour was perceived by key Ottoman statesmen as a warning and a definite sign of the urgent need for reform of the Ottoman state. The November Uprising marked a turning point in the history of Polish political emigration in general, and of the Polish presence in the late Ottoman Empire in particular.

Following this armed rebellion against Russia in the semi-autonomous Congress Kingdom, the heartland of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a mass emigration of political elites took place.

Polonia Ottomanica: Overview of Polish/Ottoman History

This was a time of expansion for the Ottomans as they recovered from the disastrous defeat inflicted on them by Timur-i Leng Tamerlane in and the subsequent fight over the throne. From then until his death, the sultan tried to concentrate on consolidating his rule and setting up a state government. He only engaged in wars that were forced upon him, preferring to keep the peace, and that may be why he received a diplomatic mission from Poland Lehistan in Ottoman Turkish. The mission came about when the King Sigismund of Hungary felt directly threatened by the Ottomans.

He wanted help from Wladyslaw Jagiello, the king of Poland and Witold, the grand duke of Lithuania, both of whom were reluctant to provide military support. The Polish king sent two royal envoys: Throughout the Commonwealth, soldier's virtues were praised and the obligation to fight against infidels was proclaimed.

Poland–Turkey relations

The Polish envoys to Turkey now insisted on maintaining a dignified posture during audiences with the sultans and viziers, refusing — and often risking their lives — to bow as required, to bend their heads to the ground in front of a Turkish dignitary. But it was in the 17th century, during the most intense struggle against the Ottoman Empire, that oriental influences reached their apogee in Poland.

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The elements of Turkish costume, weapons, household effects had appeared in Poland before. However, those were minor borrowings. In the 17th century, the oriental influences were growing stronger and occurred so massively that we can talk about the orientalization of the gentry culture.

polish ottoman relationship

The well-developed trade with the East from where fabrics, weapons, carpets, jewellery were imported, contributed to the phenomenon. Also the wars, during which substantial loots were taken, contributed to the multiplication of Eastern goods and products in the homes of the gentry.

Strong Turkish-Tatar influences were also visible in weaponry and the way of warfare which Poles had to adjust to the tactics of their enemy.

Polish-Ottoman Relations

Those influences resulted in and at the same time were confirmed by a number of linguistic borrowings. The fascination with the material culture of the East and the Eastern way of warfare, however, did not lead to cultural and social rapprochement. In the eyes of the 17th-century Polish travellers, the Turks now seemed corrupt, venomous, lewd and lecherous, or at best effeminate individuals, although certain social forms, e.

Turkish harems, evoked some envy in the Polish nobility.