What is ORTHOGONAL? definition of ORTHOGONAL (Psychology Dictionary)
Explanation Edit. Formally, two vectors x and y in an inner product space V are orthogonal if their inner product ⟨x,y⟩ is zero. This situation is denoted x⊥y. ORTHOGONAL: "The orthogonal aspects of the buildings was majorly to credit for the impression the architecture gave when filmed.". Features of a program that are compatible with its own earlier versions -- called backward compatible -- have an orthogonal relationship with.
It is then possible to define an inner product in that space, in different ways.
One common choice is to define it as the covariance: Another possibility is to define the inner product of random variables simply as the expectancy of the product.
Especially in linear regression, we have independent variables which are not considered random but predefined. Independent variables are usually given as sequences of numbers, for which orthogonality is naturally defined by the dot product see above. We can then investigate the statistical consequences of regression models where the independent variables are or are not orthogonal.
In this context, orthogonality does not have a specifically statistical definition, and even more: Addition responding to Silverfish's comment: In conventional FDM, a separate filter for each subchannel is required.
Statistics, econometrics, and economics[ edit ] When performing statistical analysis, independent variables that affect a particular dependent variable are said to be orthogonal if they are uncorrelated,  since the covariance forms an inner product. In this case the same results are obtained for the effect of any of the independent variables upon the dependent variable, regardless of whether one models the effects of the variables individually with simple regression or simultaneously with multiple regression.
If correlation is present, the factors are not orthogonal and different results are obtained by the two methods.
This usage arises from the fact that if centered by subtracting the expected value the meanuncorrelated variables are orthogonal in the geometric sense discussed above, both as observed data i.
One econometric formalism that is alternative to the maximum likelihood framework, the Generalized Method of Momentsrelies on orthogonality conditions. In particular, the Ordinary Least Squares estimator may be easily derived from an orthogonality condition between the explanatory variables and model residuals.
Taxonomy[ edit ] In taxonomyan orthogonal classification is one in which no item is a member of more than one group, that is, the classifications are mutually exclusive.
In chemistry and biochemistry, an orthogonal interaction occurs when there are two pairs of substances and each substance can interact with their respective partner, but does not interact with either substance of the other pair.
For example, DNA has two orthogonal pairs: As a chemical example, tetrazine reacts with transcyclooctene and azide reacts with cyclooctyne without any cross-reaction, so these are mutually orthogonal reactions, and so, can be performed simultaneously and selectively. In supramolecular chemistry the notion of orthogonality refers to the possibility of two or more supramolecular, often non-covalentinteractions being compatible; reversibly forming without interference from the other.
What we need is an internal referee who can help us determine which skill to prioritize in a given situation. To that end, the referee must first understand on a deeper level what is valuable about each strength. We need to know the utility function of the two competing values in the upper-right-hand quadrant if we are to choose wisely between them.
That deeper understanding will help us choose whether, for example, it makes sense at this point in the meeting to interrupt and move to action or to listen to further deliberation. To compare the utility function of the two options from our example — competitiveness is an effective value for acquiring and sharpening skills, increasing efficiency, enhancing opportunities, creating new options, handling emergencies, etc.
We need to know which outcome we are seeking in order to know which value to prioritize. If this is an emergency meeting, we may want to stay with a more competitive value.
If we are seeking new ideas, inclusivity. Our referee needs to study both strengths, be alert to the utility function of each, feel no shame about using either and then make a choice in the moment.
If it turns out to not be the best choice, our other strength is standing by ready to take the stage. One final hint If you find it difficult to learn the skill that will balance out one of your strengths, find someone you admire who has the skill and copy them. If your friend Martin is the consummate listener, ask yourself What Would Martin Do when you want to evoke that skill set. I get a kick out of the acronym W. Most of us should have quite a number of these equilibrium-inducing consultants tucked away in our minds who we can imitate as we learn new ways of being.
The human arm presents us with a reminder that balance is paramount, for, without the little tricep, the large bicep is useless.
APA Dictionary of Psychology
So if you want to wield a powerful psychological arm, keep working that dominant bicep but remember to attend to the small but indispensable tricep as well. I love to see life as aspirational, pungent and interactive. I want the crowd involved in the game.