Celtic-Norse Relationships in the Irish Sea in the Middle Ages
Celtic-Norse Relationships in the Irish Sea in the Middle Ages , Jón Vidar Sigurdsson and Timothy Bolton (eds.) 9 oktober Dec 9, The first genetic map of the Irish reveals geographic clusters that reflect the and inter-relationships of our ancestor groups through their DNA. Sep 20, The truth is that there were raids both ways and that the Norse had every reason to fear their Celtic neighbours. There are well-documented.
He traces the roots of the Anglo-Norman aversion to this enslavement tactics to the upcoming ideals of chivalry and moral reform, as preached by the Church. The erection of stone crosses with a shared Norse pagan and an Irish christian imagery shows how the Norse newcomers took over the Irish tradition of the making of stone crosses but projected their own traditional mythology on it.
In the next article, Alan Lane thoroughly shows that the arrival of the Vikings in the Hebrides can be seen clearly in the very distinct type of pottery that was used.
Until the Viking arrival, there was no marked difference in pottery styles from the Middle and Late Iron Age onwards.
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In her contribution Zanette Glorstad shows that not only the Irish and insular places where the Viking newcomers settled were transformed by them, also because of this encounter with the new lands the Viking homeland was transformed by the incorporation and adoption of new products and customs. At the same time, this caused a lasting change of perception of the world by the people remaining at home in Norway. Julie Lund in her article describes how the Vikings in Ireland used the symbolic disposition of weapons on marked locations in the landscape as a way of giving meaning to that landscape, as was done in the Scandinavian homeland.
By way of depositing these weapons, through their meaning the landscape also got meaning, thus restructuring it for their Norse inhabitants. John Hines closes with a literary approach in which he studies the evolution of the medieval tale of king Havelok, whose story was used and adapted time and again throughout the Middle Ages, in Middle English and Old French, borrowing motives and names from the neighbouring Celtic tradition.
Viewing over the whole collection of articles in this compilation the great diversity is what strikes most. A lot of research has been bunched in the volume and it truly is a pleasure to plunge into all the different aspects of Celtic-Norse connections that are presented here. The Norse state that developed in Dublin became a significant factor in Irish internal life, with alliances being formed with some Irish leaders. At the same time Dublin became a significant international trading centre.
The year AD saw the Vikings sailing into Waterford and establishing a base from where their reach could extend into Munster. Later bases included what subsequently became known as Limerick following the Viking invasion into the Shannon estuary.
Celts and Vikings - Scandinavian Influences on the Celtic Nations
The city of Cork in Munster, although starting out as a sixth century monastic community, developed from the Viking settlement there after AD.
There are other such examples of place names in Ireland that point to Viking involvement. A significant event in ending the Viking wars in Ireland is thought to be the Battle of Clontarf, which reached its climax on 3rd April At that time Brian Boru had grown to be High King of Ireland as he sought to make other kings pay allegiance to him.
Although victorious, Brian was killed at Clontarf. This was not though the end of the Vikings in Ireland. Even before the emergence of Brian Boru the Vikings had settled, intermarried and their settlements had formed part of Irish political life.
This ran alongside all of the associated battles at times with some Irish rulers and then alliances with others. Vikings in Wales, Cornwall and Brittany Wales Despite many raids the first recorded was in AD there was no significant Viking colonisation in Wales, although settlements existed in the south of the country and in Anglesey. The island of Anglesey in the northwest of Wales was subject to attacks and was clearly well known to the Vikings. The name Anglesey Onglesey is of Norse derivation along with other place names on the Island.
It is also known that Vikings arrived there after being driven out of Dublin in AD. Anglesey is also a just hours sailing distance from the Viking stronghold of the Isle of Man.
Celtic-Norse Relationships in the Irish Sea in the Middle Ages 800-1200
Overall the powerful Welsh kings, despite their internal disputes, prevented the establishment of Viking states or control. Rhodri ap Merfyn Rhodri Mawr - to the ruler of Gwynedd was one such leader of opposition to early Viking incursion and in killed Gorm the Danish leader. The situation over the period of Viking expansion was not always one of hostility between Welsh and Vikings.
At times alliances were formed in opposition to the Anglo Saxons. Cornwall Cornwall was also able to defend itself against any major Viking incursion. This was helped by subsequent continued Danish Viking raids on the Saxons. Brittany Brittany's relationship with the Vikings needs to be seen in the context of its resistance to Frankish rule and the general political power struggles that were taking place between the ninth and eleventh centuries.
There were various groups of Scandinavians operating at the time, often collectively known as Vikings, but with different objectives. At times there were brutal Viking attacks on Brittany.
At other times the Viking wars with the Franks gave an opportunity for Breton consolidation of territories. On occasion alliances were made with the Danish Vikings to contain Frankish expansionism. The situation was complicated by internal Viking divisions with the Bretons siding with one group of Vikings against another in order to defend themselves and their territory.
However, the eventual strengthening of the Franks ability to defend themselves against attack and their alliances with the Vikings resulted in major Viking incursion into Brittany. The last recorded raid on Brittany was inwith the attack on Dol by a Viking fleet. The same was true in the Scottish Isles and Isle of Man. Place names reveal their influences, as do family names.
The legacy of the Vikings can be seen throughout the Gaelic world.
Of Norse Loki and the Celtic Lugh | Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids
A remarkable surviving physical example of this is the Manx carved stone crosses on which Norse and Gaelic names are carved. Later Norse sculptors decorated their crosses and incorporated tales from pagan mythology. They depict scenes from the heroic Norse legend of Sigurd Fafnir's Bane. On a side of one of the stones in the village of Andreas the hero Sigurd is shown roasting Fafnir the dragon's heart and sucking his fingers.
The head of a bird and his horse can be seen in the background. The other side of the stone depicts a subsequent part of the tale. It shows the figure of Gunnar, who is Sigurd's foster brother, being bitten by serpents and then cast into a pit of vipers.
Vikings 'were warned to avoid Scotland' - Telegraph
In Orkney place names are now practically all Norse in origin and number many thousand that are derivatives or corruptions of original Old Norse names.
These old Norwegian words are found mingled with some words of Celtic origin and occasional Scottish ones introduced later. High concentrations of Norwegian genetic heritage were found.
An interesting additional factor in the story of the Celts and Vikings is that of the Papar. In islands of the Outer Hebrides there are those baring the name in Gaelic of Pabaigh. Information on the Vikings in the Celtic World This comes from a variety of sources. There have been remarkable discoveries such as the Lewis Chessmen, thought to date from the 12th century and found in on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides.
Viking ship burials have been uncovered and artefacts found from sites in the Northern Isles and the Southern Isles. There are written records from monasteries and later sources as listed below: