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Material and Methods Participants Twenty-three elite, female, youth basketball players age: Players were eligible for participation in the study if they were 14—18 years old at the beginning of the study seasonfemale, and elite basketball players.
The players were divided into a U16 group players born before that participated in the first junior Catalan category and a U18 group players born before that participated in the second national female basketball league.
Most of the players included in the research were part of the Spanish national basketball teams in their respective age groups. In addition to a weekend match, routine training sessions occurred times per week and lasted approximately min each. Before the study started, participants and their parents received detailed written and verbal information about the possible risks and discomforts associated with testing.
Written informed consent and assent were obtained from both parents and participants, respectively. Procedures To evaluate physical fitness, the mean scores of the physical fitness tests conducted pre- and post-season were used as the representative values.
These evaluations were carried out on separate days, over two weeks, with a minimum of 48 hours of rest between assessments. The physical fitness capacities tested were maximal aerobic capacity day 1speed and agility day 2lower and upper limb explosive strength day 3anaerobic capacity day 4repeated sprint ability day 5 and upper and lower limb strength day 6.
To evaluate game-related performance, the average number of games played and the number of minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game were calculated for each player during the season.
Prior to every physical performance test, all subjects performed a 10 min neuromuscular warm-up. One week before evaluation, the subjects were familiarized with the testing procedures.
The body fat percentage was estimated using the Faulkner equation Faulkner, The test consists of two 20 m bouts of progressive speed shuttle-running interspersed with 10 s of active recovery and is performed until exhaustion.
The test was considered complete when the participant failed to reach the 20 m demarcation lines in-time twice.
The total distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary performance measure and the speed attained during the last two sets of 20 m bouts was used to estimate VO2max. We used the following equation to calculate the maximum aerobic power: The test was performed on the basketball court. The start and finish lines were clearly marked with cones. Each player completed three sprints with a 3 min rest period between each sprint.
The time was recorded with a digital stopwatch to the nearest 0. Reliability of sprint tests had been reported to be excellent, with ICCs of 0. The fastest time of the three sprints was used for further analysis.
The T-test is the optimal test to be used in basketball to evaluate agility as it includes forward, lateral and backward running.
Based on the protocol outlined by Pauole et al. Then, they side shuffled to their left without crossing their feet to another cone placed 4. Next, they shuffled sideways to the right to the third cone placed 9. Finally, they shuffled back to the middle cone, touched the base with the left hand and then ran backwards to the starting line.
Two trials were completed and the fastest time was used for further analysis. Time to completion was measured using a digital stopwatch to the nearest 0. This test had previously demonstrated good reliability Hetzler et al. Lower limb explosive strength. Flight time was recorded using Chronojump software to calculate the vertical jump height obtained De Blas et al.
Every jump was separated by a rest period of 20 s. The highest vertical jump height was used for further analysis. Upper limb explosive strength. The players stood at a line with the feet shoulder-width apart and faced the direction in which the ball was to be thrown. The ball was brought back behind the head and then thrown forward vigorously as far as possible.
The player was not permitted to step forward over the line before or after the ball was released. Players were allowed three attempts.
Throw distance was measured using a measuring tape that was fastened on the floor. The greatest distance thrown was used for further analysis. Players were asked to perform four consecutive shuttle sprints of 5. Standardised verbal encouragement for an all-out effort was given throughout the test.
Two trials separated by 10 min were completed and the fastest time was used for analysis. This method had previously demonstrated good reliability Hetzler et al. Repeated sprint ability RSA. The ability to sprint repeatedly over duration of a basketball match is an important component in basketball conditioning McInnes et al.
A basketball-specific repeated sprint ability protocol consisting of 10 shuttle run sprints of 30 m designed as a 15m out and back course interspersed with 30 s of passive recovery was conducted Castagna et al. Sprint performance during the test was assessed with a photocell beam connected to a computer Chronojump BoscoSystem, Barcelona, Spain De Blas et al. This section needs additional citations for verification. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Teams abounded throughout the s.
There were hundreds of men's professional basketball teams in towns and cities all over the United States, and little organization of the professional game. Players jumped from team to team and teams played in armories and smoky dance halls. Leagues came and went. Barnstorming squads such as the Original Celtics and two all-African American teams, the New York Renaissance Five "Rens" and the still existing Harlem Globetrotters played up to two hundred games a year on their national tours.
By the s, basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball.
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Ina basketball hall of fame was founded in SpringfieldMassachusetts, site of the first game. Its rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game. The hall of fame has people who have accomplished many goals in their career in basketball. Today the NBA is the top professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.
As of the —18 season, the G League has 26 teams. International basketball This section needs additional citations for verification. At this time, the organization only oversaw amateur players. Men's basketball was first included at the Berlin Summer Olympicsalthough a demonstration tournament was held in The United States defeated Canada in the first final, played outdoors. This competition has usually been dominated by the United States, whose team has won all but three titles.
The first of these came in a controversial final game in Munich in against the Soviet Union, in which the ending of the game was replayed three times until the Soviet Union finally came out on top. Women's basketball was added to the Olympics inwhich were held in MontrealQuebec, Canada with teams such as the Soviet UnionBrazil and Australia rivaling the American squads.
Prior to the Summer Olympicsonly European and South American teams were allowed to field professionals in the Olympics. The United States' dominance continued with the introduction of the original Dream Team. In the Athens Olympicsthe United States suffered its first Olympic loss while using professional players, falling to Puerto Rico in a point loss and Lithuania in group games, and being eliminated in the semifinals by Argentina. It eventually won the bronze medal defeating Lithuania, finishing behind Argentina and Italy.
Worldwide, basketball tournaments are held for boys and girls of all age levels. The global popularity of the sport is reflected in the nationalities represented in the NBA.
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Players from all six inhabited continents currently play in the NBA. It was founded as a "rebellion" of several teams from the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association, which was tightly controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines now defunctthe then-FIBA recognized national association. The NBL is Australia's pre-eminent men's professional basketball league.
The league commenced inplaying a winter season April—September and did so until the completion of the 20th season in The —99 season, which commenced only months later, was the first season after the shift to the current summer season format October—April. This shift was an attempt to avoid competing directly against Australia's various football codes.
It features 8 teams from around Australia and one in New Zealand. The Women's National Basketball League began in Women's basketball This section needs additional citations for verification. Shortly after she was hired at Smith, she went to Naismith to learn more about the game.
Spalding 's first Women's Basketball Guide. Bythe game had spread to colleges across the country, including WellesleyVassarand Bryn Mawr. The first intercollegiate women's game was on April 4, Stanford women played Berkeley9-on-9, ending in a 2—1 Stanford victory.
Women's basketball development was more structured than that for men in the early years. The International Women's Sports Federation included a women's basketball competition. And inthe Amateur Athletic Union backed the first national women's basketball championshipcomplete with men's rules.
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The Grads toured all over North America, and were exceptionally successful. They posted a record of wins and only 20 losses over that span, as they met any team that wanted to challenge them, funding their tours from gate receipts.
The Grads' players were unpaid, and had to remain single. The Grads' style focused on team play, without overly emphasizing skills of individual players. Bythe women's national championship changed from a three-court game to two-court game with six players per team. Though it had shaky attendance figures, several marquee players Lisa LeslieDiana Taurasiand Candace Parker among others have helped the league's popularity and level of competition.
Other professional women's basketball leagues in the United States, such as the American Basketball League —98have folded in part because of the popularity of the WNBA. The WNBA has been looked at by many as a niche league.
However, the league has recently taken steps forward. The new television deal ran from to Along with this deal, came the first ever rights fees to be paid to a women's professional sports league. Over the eight years of the contract, "millions and millions of dollars" were "dispersed to the league's teams. We're losing a lot of money among a large number of teams. We're budgeting the WNBA to break even this year.
Most important terms related to the basketball court Main article: Rules of basketball Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are used in this section. The object of the game is to outscore one's opponents by throwing the ball through the opponents' basket from above while preventing the opponents from doing so on their own.
An attempt to score in this way is called a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it is taken from beyond the three-point arc 6. The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours. Five players from each team may be on the court at one time.
Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategies of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers. For both men's and women's teams, a standard uniform consists of a pair of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique within the team, printed on both the front and back.
Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players' names and, outside of North America, sponsors are printed on the uniforms. A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach or sometimes mandated in the NBA for a short meeting with the players, are allowed.
They generally last no longer than one minute seconds in the NBA unless, for televised games, a commercial break is needed. The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee referred to as crew chief in the NBAone or two umpires referred to as referees in the NBA and the table officials. For college, the NBA, and many high schools, there are a total of three referees on the court.
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The table officials are responsible for keeping track of each teams scoring, timekeeping, individual and team foulsplayer substitutions, team possession arrowand the shot clock. Equipment Traditional eight-panel basketball The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the ball and the court: Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, score sheets, scoreboard salternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems.
An outdoor basketball net A regulation basketball court in international games is At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet 3. While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height — a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.
The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is If women are playing, the official basketball size is In 3x3a formalized version of the halfcourt 3-on-3 game, a dedicated ball with the circumference of a size 6 ball but the weight of a size 7 ball is used in all competitions men's, women's, and mixed teams.
April Learn how and when to remove this template message The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped, rolled or dribbled bouncing the ball while running. The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession.
The ball is out of bounds if it touches a boundary line, or touches any player or object that is out of bounds. There are limits placed on the steps a player may take without dribbling, which commonly results in an infraction known as traveling.
Nor may a player stop his dribble and then resume dribbling. A dribble that touches both hands is considered stopping the dribble, giving this infraction the name double dribble. Within a dribble, the player cannot carry the ball by placing his hand on the bottom of the ball; doing so is known as carrying the ball.
A team, once having established ball control in the front half of their court, may not return the ball to the backcourt and be the first to touch it. A violation of these rules results in loss of possession. The ball may not be kicked, nor be struck with the fist.