Clinical Instructor, National Institute of Nursing Education, Postgraduate Institute factors affecting faculty staff relationship and techniques of working together. portant factor in determining the quality of education, and [7, 8] Many factors influence faculty staff members' professionalism, such as. Factors influencing the patient education: A qualitative research . The primary analysis team consisted of the first author and three other faculty supervisors and interns and residents may cause a great workload for the nursing staff. the nurse, an empathy-oriented relationship between the nurse and the patient can be.
The ways in which learners reflect vary depending on the nature of the subject matter and the facilitation strategies used. Relevant Learning Learning is greatest when it can be applied to situations of interest to the learner and when there is an immediate benefit. If adults see the relevance of the material presented to their own situations, their motivation to learn increases and the instructor will have a more attentive audience. Motivation to learn originates from the adult learner's expectations of the usefulness of the content Svinicki, When adults are forced to learn against their own inclinations and desires, the resulting resentment may become a barrier to meaningful learning Brookfield, To maximize learning, the instructor must convince the audience that the material presented is important and useful to them.
Active Learning Adults tend to prefer active learning where instructional experiences are related to their real-life situations Mezirow, Retention of information for adult learners can be maximized through activity Thomas, Presentation strategies that can assist in communicating necessary information about academic accommodations and faculty concerns include offering faculty practical strategies and meaningful discussion about disability issues and topics.
Implications for Practice Some faculty members have had little or no contact with people who have disabilities. Others have taught students with disabilities in their classes. For some, accommodating students with disabilities is consistent with their sense of justice and pedagogical beliefs; for others, providing special accommodations to some students implies unfairness to others. Some faculty members welcome new ideas; others reject change.
Expect that your faculty audience will hold a range of such beliefs and attitudes. When training is voluntary, you can assume that your audience is motivated.
Factors influencing the patient education: A qualitative research
However, if your presentation is mandatory or a part of a program for a group gathered for another purpose, expect that some participants will be reluctant learners. Consider the following suggestions as you prepare your presentation: Transformative Learning Present clear, situation-relevant learning objectives.
Avoid abstractions, rhetoric, and theory with little immediate application. Adult learners may be impatient with hearing general information and find little use for isolated facts. Include concrete examples of accommodations, legal requirements, and campus resources.
To promote transformative learning, consider sharing myths or misconceptions related to disabilities and refute them with factual information.
Students with learning disabilities have a lower than average IQ. All students with hearing impairments use sign-language interpreters. Students who are deaf are good lip or speech readers.
People who use wheelchairs cannot drive automobiles. Actually, hand controls and other assistive technology allow operation of vehicles without using standard foot pedals. Providing academic accommodations is always difficult, time consuming, and expensive.
Actually, most accommodations are simple and inexpensive. Students who are blind read Braille. People who are blind cannot use computers. Actually, speech and Braille output and output systems provide blind computer users with full access to all content on a screen. Address each item in the list, correcting misconceptions and discussing experiences, resources, and procedures on your campus.
Respect audience members' expertise in their fields while at the same time, recognize that they may lack background and experience on the topic you are presenting. When asking and responding to questions in presentations, be careful not to make participants feel wrong or ignorant if they are poorly informed McLagan, Openly acknowledge the difficulties that change can create and the extra time that might be required to accommodate a specific student with a disability.
Be sure to balance the description of challenges that result from fully including students with disabilities in classes and programs with the positive outcomes that result from doing so. With a straightforward approach, resistant or defensive audience members are more likely to trust you and the information you present.
Relevant Learning Make the content relevant to the work of the participants. Postsecondary educators have a wealth of knowledge and multiple responsibilities, all of which draw upon their time and energy. As with most adult learners, postsecondary educators are goal-oriented, generally appreciate outcomes more than process, have set habits and strong feelings, and have little time to waste.
When providing training for faculty and administrators, it is important to be sensitive to the different needs of participants. For example, faculty need information in order to provide academic accommodations in their specific classes.
Some participants may have a personal interest in the subject matter or enjoy learning the information simply for the sake of knowledge; many will prefer to receive only information that is relevant to their position. Tap into the positive motivations of the audience to help them want to learn. Consider why your audience is attending your presentation. If your presentation is part of a regularly scheduled faculty meeting, a brief introduction delivered by the dean or chair of the department can help emphasize the importance of the material you will present.
To determine audience interests, consider making brief phone calls or conducting a survey prior to a presentation to gain information or ask participants to share their interests at the beginning of the presentation. Use the life and work experiences of those in the session to develop examples and to answer questions. Active Learning Audience participation can help keep your participants engaged as well as provide opportunities for you to reinforce key points. Ask your audience if they have taught students with disabilities, and encourage participants to share their experiences and concerns.
Incorporate information the participants wish to learn into the training section. Allow participants to discuss examples and case studies to explore how the information presented can be applied.
Videos or panels of students with disabilities can provide real-life examples to promote discussion; the visual images can help participants assimilate the content. Approach each presentation with an attitude that everyone can contribute to the learning process. Develop an environment of trust and respect by ensuring the training is a safe place to discuss personal ideas without criticism. Invite faculty members who have worked with students who have disabilities to share their experiences and field questions from the audience.
Let participants discuss challenges they currently face, or have faced in the past, and help lead them to solutions.
Building the Team: Faculty, Staff, and Students Working Together
Conclusion Keep the key concepts of adult learning theory in mind as you prepare and present professional development programs for faculty members and administrators to make them more effective. Actively engage participants in the learning process, make the content relevant to their jobs, and work to transform inaccurate assumptions into accurate perceptions. Ultimately, increased skills of faculty and administrators can result in more positive academic and career outcomes for students with disabilities.
Learning Styles Research Question What do we know about learning styles that can guide the delivery and design of professional development for faculty and administrators regarding equal access of students with disabilities to courses and programs? Overview of Research How learners learn is as important to consider as the content being taught.
Learner-centered education strives to make both content and methods appropriate for the learner Conti, Although learning is an individual event, it often occurs in a group setting Felder, In any group, the presenter can assume that participants have a variety of learning styles.
Addressing learning style issues in the delivery of instruction can maximize its effectiveness. Dunn and Griggs describe learning style as the way an individual begins to concentrate on, process, internalize, and remember new information and skills. They report that learning style is an individual's reaction to several factors that include the following: In addition to the learning styles of students, it is important for presenters to be aware of their own learning preferences.
An instructor's style may influence the activities chosen within the learning environment. Students will respond based on their own personal preferences.
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A mismatch between the learning styles of students and their instructor can interfere with learning and raise the discomfort level of students.
Alternatively, when the learning styles of students are similar to those of an instructor, they may exhibit greater achievement and personal satisfaction Felder, ; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Office, Division of Instructional Development, Sensory Preferences Perhaps the most commonly used categories of learning styles are based on sensory preferences.
Wooldridge describes learners with the following preferences. Auditory Preferences This category describes those who learn best by listening to verbal instruction such as a lecture, discussion, or recording. Coker describes this person as "the listener," preferring to rely on sounds to learn. Visual Preferences These learners use vision for their primary perceptual preference and can remember most easily what they read or observe.
- Related Books
- Synthesis of Research
- Six Models of Professional Development
They can close their eyes to recall what they have read or seen earlier. Ness includes a separate category of "written word" in which the person has a preference for learning by reading as opposed to actually seeing objects or participating in activities in order to learn. Tactile Preferences Learners with tactile perceptual preferences often need to underline as they read, take notes when they listen, or keep their hands busy in other ways.
Members of this group may never read the notes they write. Rather, the activity of writing is sufficient for the learning to occur Ness, Kinesthetic Preferences For these learners, whole body movement and real life experiences are often needed to absorb and retain the material to be learned.
They learn best when they are totally involved in an activity. This theory explains how a person develops observations and reflections from a concrete experience. Abstract concepts are then formed which guide new behavior. Within this model, four specific learning styles emerge: Converger These learners work best when there is a simple and correct answer to a problem.
Their dominant learning abilities are abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. These individuals prefer dealing with things rather than people and tend to excel in the physical sciences and engineering. Diverger These individuals learn best through concrete experience and reflective observation.
A strength is their imaginative ability. They tend to be people-oriented, react with emotions, and excel in humanities and the liberal arts. Assimilator The dominant learning orientations of these people are abstract conceptualization and reflective observation.
Abstract conceptualization activities include listening to lectures, writing papers, building models, completing projects, and developing analogies.
Reflective observation activities include the use of logs, journals, discussion, brainstorming, thought questions, and rhetorical questions. Assimilators like to organize diverse items into an integrated whole. They are often interested in math and science fields. Accommodator Accommodators learn best through concrete experimentation. These activities include practicing in laboratories, collecting observations, reading primary text, participating in simulations and fieldwork, working problem sets, and studying examples and case studies.
Accommodators like to have new experiences. They are intuitive and often use the trial-and-error strategy to solve problems. This type of learner often prefers technical or business fields. Implications for Practice Successful presenters employ a variety of teaching strategies in response to the diverse set of learning styles found within most groups.
They also consider diversity in age, experience, intellect, and background. This is particularly important when teaching new material.
Successful instructional techniques include the following Felder, Teach theory by providing phenomena and problems that relate to the theory. Balance conceptual information with concrete information. Use a variety of sketches, plots, schematics, computer graphics, and physical demonstrations in addition to oral and written explanations in lectures and handouts. Provide plenty of time for reflection and discussion. Provide time for learners to think about the material being presented and organize their thoughts.
Promote active participation and respond to individual questions. Also encourage faculty participants to use a variety of teaching strategies with their own students in order to address the different learning styles in their classes Goad, Sensory Preferences Experiment with new techniques and strategies that may not be part of your own style.
Some individuals learn better through listening, some through discussing, others through reading or watching, and still others through doing. Engage participants in a variety of learning activities that use multiple senses. Provide key information in multiple ways. Consider using videos, group discussions, mini-lectures, case studies, questions and answers, panels, and role-playing. Experiential Learning Experiential learning can be used in your faculty training by developing activities based on the common learning styles of different faculty groups.
For example, business instructors may prefer activities designed for the accommodator; history, political science, English, and psychology faculty may be more receptive to activities for the diverger; economics, mathematics, sociology, and science instructors may find activities for the assimilator to be more effective; and those in engineering may prefer activities associated with the converger. Conclusion Create a learner-centered environment in training sessions for faculty and administrators.
Expand your teaching style repertoire in order to accommodate all learners and encourage faculty to do the same to support the learning needs of their students. Use multiple instructional methods that engage different senses so that more learners, including those with disabilities, can learn effectively.
Types of Learning Research Question What do we know about types of learning that can guide the design and delivery of professional development for faculty and administrators regarding equal access of students with disabilities to courses and programs? Overview of Research Learning has been categorized in many ways. Three are discussed below.
Bloom's Taxonomy Psychologist Benjamin Bloom developed a classification scheme for types of learning which includes three overlapping domains: Skills in the cognitive domain, the one most relevant to faculty and administrator training Lee,include: Explaining what the law means is comprehension. Application is illustrated when someone knows how the law applies to higher education. Analysis is required to discuss the details of specific legal applications. Finally, synthesis is needed to develop policies and procedures for a postsecondary institution in response to the ADA.
Professor Mark Tennant categorized types of learning in a different way. A represents "attitude," also known as affective learning. An example of this type of learning is a shift in attitude toward the academic abilities of students with disabilities.
S represents "skills," often called psychomotor or manual learning. Learning to operate adaptive technology is an example of the development of skills. An example of knowledge is information on available resources related to disability issues. Gardner's Seven Knowledge Types Howard Gardnerdeveloped a theory of multiple intelligences based upon research in the biological sciences, logistical analysis, and psychology.
He breaks down knowledge into seven types: Gardner's theory purports that people use these types of intelligence according to the type of learning that is necessary, their personal strengths and abilities, and the environment in which the learning takes place.
Since different teaching strategies are best applied to certain types of learning, using a wide variety of activities when teaching new material will maximize learning for everyone Felder, Implications for Practice Carefully consider the context of the participants in the audience of your presentation.
What knowledge do they need to perform their job more effectively? What skills need to be developed? How can you help participants synthesize critical content in order to develop appropriate institutional policies? How can you help them develop strategies for accommodating specific students with disabilities in specific activities? How can you model and promote a positive attitude about disability-related accommodations? Often, learning occurs during periods of confusion, frustration, and struggle.
For this reason, risk-taking on the part of the facilitator and the participants is necessary. Sharing personal experiences, posing questions, and presenting case studies can promote learning. In order to engage participants in critical thinking and facilitate problem-solving, consider the following suggestions Brookfield, Value and respect participants through word and action.
Listen attentively and provide support for efforts. Identify and challenge assumptions. Reflect back attitudes, rationalizations, and habitual behaviors. Imagine and explore alternatives. Model critical thinking through clarity, consistency, openness, and accessibility.
Teach theory by detailing phenomena and practical problems related to the theory. Balance conceptual with concrete information. Provide time for participants to reflect upon the material being presented. Vary your presentation methods and individualize your strategies. Address the three types of learning—attitude, skills, and knowledge. To address attitudes toward students with disabilities, consider having a panel of successful college students and graduates with disabilities share their experiences.
To make sure about the transferability of the study, information about the researchers, population studied, sampling, and coding decisions was provided. Audit trails helped the researchers establish dependability and confirmability of this research. Through an inquiry audit of the process, dependability was achieved, which led to attesting and certifying that the process was acceptable, professional, legal, and ethical. In case of confirmability, it was achieved through a confirmability audit which examined the product datafindings, interpretations, and recommendations, attesting that the findings were supported by the data.
It is also worth mentioning that continuous consultation with supervisors, who had extensive experience in qualitative research, was practiced to ensure dependability and confirmability. The categories are not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignorance of patient's right in education, lack of motivation and rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control.
Each category has been explained in detail subsequently. Not putting value on education Values play an important role in any organization and can be considered as determinants of organizational culture.
Factors influencing the patient education: A qualitative research
When all patient education activities are delivered through a crumbled pamphlet exclusively by the ward secretary at discharge time, we found that education may not be highly valued. Non-professional activities Having bureaucratic process in nursing paper work and doing non-professional activities, which are out of the nursing job description, are due to staff shortage, organizational structure of hospitals, weakness in nursing management, etc.
The following quotation from one of the nurses confirms the issues mentioned above: A nurse manager said: They have access to most of the facilities in the hospital, such as library, internet, and parking space for their private vehicles, etc. It may cause a feeling of discrimination between physician and others especially nurses.
Conflict and lack of coherence in education Coherence is an element and a key feature of organizational culture. A hospital nurse manager said: I mean nurses, physicians and others do their duties separately without any cooperation as a team. That's why we do not achieve our objectives.
Most of the nurses and some patients mentioned some controversies in patient education, for example, the difference between medical recommendations and nutritional diets in the hospital. Confirming the aforementioned subjects, one of the head nurses said: That's why there lays a conflict between what the patients are recommended and what they practically receive.
The proposed issues include a broad level of communication between different groups such as manager and health care providers, physicians and nurses, and finally patients and health care providers.
Their behavior inspires as if they do not see us! All participants believed that friendly cooperation between health care team members is a pre-requisite for patient education.
In this regard, a nurse mentioned that: One of the nurses put it like this: This perspective may play as a barrier for patient education. They do not think that the person in the hospital is a human being and he can think and feel and understand all the problems well. Motivation is a force which helps the people to achieve their goals and creates eagerness and more readiness to do their tasks.
The following quotation by one of the nurses confirmed our claim: You may be asked just for primary care like patient hygiene, whereas you will not be rewarded for the professional care.
For example, while shift changing, the head nurse just focuses on untidy sheets of patient. She doesn't pay attention to problems I had the night before, such as no time to have dinner or even a short rest because of my high workload. Even she may see the nurse looks pale and tired, but only considers the bed sheet of patient! This behavior leads to decrease in nurse's motivation, self-confidence and self-efficacy, and the patients may also not trust the nurse for educating them.
They also believed that not putting value on their jobs resulted in their reluctance to educate patients. For example, a nurse supervisor said: A clinical supervisor argued thus: We could easily consult with the physicians about the patients. For example, when I was working as a nurse in a ward, I did emphasize on meeting patient's basic needs providing bedpans and urinals. Although patients were very satisfied with it, they could not accept me as an educator.
They thought I am not an expert person for educating them! Most of the nurses strongly believed that the patient education program is not supervised precisely. The head nurse controls and monitors all nursing activities except nurse's role in patient education.
On the other hand, some nurses believed that the educational supervisors in their hospital do not play any role in supervising patient education programs. When she had been asked about the way of monitoring and supervising the nurse's practice in patient education, she replied: Then I evaluate their activities based on their assignments.
Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior.
Participants believed that what they are expected to do in the hospital is simply a list of routine works such as taking care of the medication, dressing the wounds, visiting the patients, etc. Considering the same matter, studies show that factors such as human resources, organizational structure, the leadership style, and control system and types of behaviour can affect professional matters such as patient education.
Bragg believed that in any organization, the effectiveness of the staff activities mostly depends on the extent of control exerted on them. In other words, appropriate supervision will lead to improvement and promotion. The culture within an organization is very important and plays a large role in making it is a happy and healthy working environment. Besides, creating an atmosphere and culture where human resources can be prepared for more effective and more efficient services is another goal of this system.
The hierarchical structure of the organization has caused a failure to provide a good atmosphere for educating patients as a nursing professional practice. Moreover, the paternalistic behavior of physicians and managers has caused an ineffective communication between nurses and them. Limitations The study was conducted in two large referral hospitals in Tehran; thus, the findings should be interpreted in light of this context.
So, to improve performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture. Moreover, according to the results, managers play the main role in improving the organizational culture.
Through the appropriate communication pattern and leadership style, they, as the change-making agents, can take control of the conflict, improve the organizational structure, or encourage nurses to do their professional duties in the best way, by valuing and supervising patient education. Footnotes Source of Support: Jones and Bartlett Learning; Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice.
Presenting nursing, a career for life. Teaching by the Nurse: How Important Is it to Patients? Patient education in Europe: Deccache A, Aujoulat I.
Common developments, differences and challenges in patient education. Comparison of patient and family education standards of Health Ministry of Iran with Joint Commission on Accreditation of care centers in America. Fagermoen M, Hamilton G. Patient information at discharge: