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The president held executive and legislative authority, in consultation with the .. Nigeria's diverse climate, from the tropical areas of the coast to the arid zone of .. President Obasanjo sought to maintain good relations with Western powers. relationship between the legislature and the executive is pivotal to any constitution and is one of the central .. EXECUTIVE RELATIONS IN NIGERIA'S PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM. along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. The state‟s. In an ideal democracy, there exist the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. of the importance of intergovernmental relations and interactions in Nigeria. Despite the grammatical niceties with which the constitution is coated with in .
To deal with Nigeria's economic troubles, stemming from the fall of world oil prices in the s, Babangida inaugurated a "homegrown" Structural Adjustment Program SAP prompted by the IMF but not directed by them.
It involved cuts in public spending, decreased state control over the economy, stimulation of exports, devaluation of the currency, and rescheduling of debt.
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A mostly elected Constituent Assembly met in and approved modifications in the constitution. The process of party formation proved awkward in a society as heterogeneous as Nigeria's. None of the 13 potential parties gained Babangida's approval. Instead, he decided to create two new parties, one "a little to the right" of center, another "a little to the left.
Babangida's guided program of transition from military rule to a democratic civilian Third Republic was due for completion in But it was marked by crisis after crisis. Clashes between Muslims and Christians in and spread through northern cities. Hundreds were killed in the rioting itself and then by the army seeking to contain the riots. Pro-democracy groups also emerged across society, in part from frustration with the excesses of military rule; and because of suspicion that the military might renege on plans to turn over power to elected civilians.
In elections for state governors and assemblies, the National Republican Convention NRC won 13 of 30 assemblies and 16 governorships. But voter indifference and fear of intimidation was high. When state governments took office, intraparty wrangling and political violence marred their performance. Nonetheless, by JanuaryNigerians geared up for the national presidential and legislative elections scheduled for later in the year.
Nigeria's first successful census since independence results announced in March indicated a population of The election register had to be revised downward, from 70 million to 39 million voters. On 20 Maythe government banned all political, religious, and ethnic organizations other than the two approved political parties. In legislative elections held on 4 July, the left-of-center SDP won 47 of the 91 Senate seats and of the seats in the House of Representatives.
The right-of-center NRC won 37 and seats, respectively. The ruling military council pushed back the transition date until January ; it also postponed the inauguration of the National Assembly to coincide with the formal take-off of the Third Republic.
In August and September, the country began the process of narrowing the field of presidential candidates from 20 to 2 in preparation for the December elections. But on 17 NovemberBabangida announced a third delay in the transfer of power from 2 January until 27 August Political violence and charges of electoral fraud disrupted the first round of presidential primaries.
The second round in September was flawed, too. Faced with a virtual breakdown of the electoral machinery, the military council suspended the primary results in October. All 23 of the presidential aspirants were banned from future political competition. These disruptions were compounded by high levels of student and labor unrest, detentions of dissidents, and ethnic and religious violence.
Nonetheless, the military council promised to give way to an elected civilian administration in A new round of presidential nominations took place in March The presidential election of 12 June took place amid a flurry of legal efforts to halt it and great voter confusion. Abiola apparently defeated Tofa handily, But the National Electoral Commission set aside the results on 16 June.
A week later, Babangida annulled the election citing irregularities, poor turnout, and legal complications. Abiola, backed largely by the Yoruba people, demanded to be certified as president-elect. Civil unrest followed, especially in Lagos.Good Morning Nigeria -06/07/2017: Frosty Executive/Legislature Relations
After weeks of uncertainty and tension, Babangida resigned the presidency and his military commission on 26 August He handpicked a transitional council headed by Chief Ernest Shonekan. Sani Abacha forced Shonekan to resign and he installed himself as head of state.
On 18 Novemberhe abolished all state and local governments and the national legislature. He replaced many civilian officials with military commanders. He banned political parties and all political activity and ordered strikers to return to work. The following week, he named an member Provisional Ruling Council composed mainly of generals and police officials. He also created a member Federal Executive Council to head government ministries. It included prominent civilians and some prodemocracy and human rights activists.
On 11 JuneAbiola proclaimed himself president and then went into hiding. He was arrested later that month, an action that portended much that was to come for Nigeria. Massive protests followed Abiola's arrest, but Abacha's military repressed the demonstrators violently. On 6 July Abiola pleaded not guilty to three counts of treason; the following day laborers went on strike to protest the Abacha regime. In the following months millions of Nigerian workers walked out in support of Abiola and refused to attend scheduled government talks.
Abiola remained in prison through Junewhen his outspoken wife Kudirat Abiola was assassinated. Strikes and protests continued in support of the sanctity of the vote, and of Abiola's mandate. In August, General Abacha fired his army and navy commanders.
Two weeks later he banned several newspapers, declaring that his government had absolute power and would not give in to prodemocracy demonstrators. Late in September, claiming that it was part of his plan to "rejuvenate the machinery of government," Abacha removed all civilians from his ruling council. Three months later he suspended habeas corpus and continued to round up and jail opponents.
At the same time he rejected a court order demanding the release of Abiola from prison for medical treatment. In March Abacha ordered the arrest of former Nigerian leader Olusegun Obasanjo on suspicion of treason. Later in the month he dissolved labor unions and jailed their leaders. On 25 April Abacha canceled a 1 January deadline for the return of civilian rule and refused to discuss the matter. Though he lifted a ban on political parties in JuneAbacha placed tight restrictions on their operations.
The July convictions in secret trials of 40 suspected traitors brought international condemnation and demands of leniency from critics of the Nigerian government. Ultimately Abacha relented on 1 October, commuting the death sentences of his convicted opponents and declaring that he would relinquish power to an elected government in Despite these promises, many outside observers remained skeptical, largely due to fallout from the case of Ken Saro-Wiwa, leader of the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People.
Sentenced to death in October for a quadruple murder, many believed that Saro-Wiwa had been convicted on trumped-up charges stemming from his opposition to a proposed drilling agreement in Nigeria's main oil-producing region. The executions in early November of Saro-Wiwa and eight others brought a torrent of criticism from the international community and resulted in Nigeria's suspension from the British Commonwealth and an embargo from the European Union on arms and aid to Nigeria. Bowing to this pressure, the Abacha government amended in May the law under which Saro-Wiwa and the others had been convicted and offered to hold talks on the matter with the United Kingdom.
Abacha announced efforts in November to spur economic change and raise living standards in the country, a pronouncement met with skepticism by an increasingly angry opposition. By December, opponents of the government detonated two bombs aimed at Col.
Mohammed Marwa, head of the Nigerian military. Marwa escaped both attacks. In Aprilfour of Nigeria's five major political parties nominated Abacha as their presidential candidate.
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Amid opposition accusations that the transition plan was designed to prolong Abacha's rule, legislative elections held on 25 April were heavily boycotted. Nigeria's political fortunes changed suddenly on 8 June when Abacha died of an apparent heart attack. General Abdoulsalami Abubakar took charge and promised to continue Abacha's transition. On 7 July, Abiola died of a suspected heart failure while still in custody. On 20 July General Abubakar announced a new plan for return to civilian rule culminating in a transfer of power in May On 11 January elections for state governorships and legislatures were held.
Elections for president and the national legislature were held on 27 February Despite Falae's charges of election rigging, international observers from the Carter Center and the National Democratic Institute reported that available evidence of electoral abuse and other irregularities were unlikely to have affected the overall results. In April Olu Falae closed his case against Obasanjo after a federal appeals court in Abuja rejected two pleas.
Power was handed over officially to the new government in May. Twenty heads of state attended Obasanjo's inauguration on 4 June, some two decades after he left office as a military ruler.
Obasanjo promised to restore law and order, fight corruption, and unify Nigeria's ethnically and religiously diverse peoples. InNigeria was second on Transparency International's list of most corrupt countries Cameroon was first. Infighting in the Delta region killed several hundred people while outbreaks of fighting between Yorubas and Hausa in the area of Lagos resulted in hundreds more deaths. In Februarydays of violent clashes between Muslims and Christians killed as many as persons mostly Igbo Christians, other southeasterners, and some Yorubas in Kaduna, and destroyed several churches and mosques following announcements that a fuller application of Islamic lawShariah, would be introduced in Zamfara and at least five other northern states.
The code includes punishments such as flogging and amputation, and in principle only affects Muslims, but has caused great consternation among non-Muslims. In June and Julybetween and people were killed in Nasarawa state in fighting between the Tiv and other ethnic groups. In October, more than villagers were killed by the army in the east-central state of Benue in retaliation for the murder of 19 soldiers amid fighting between the Tiv and Junkun.
From 7—13 September in the central city of Jos, about lives were lost in inter-communal violence between Muslims and Christians, although the nongovernmental organization Human Rights Watch described the conflict as more political and economic than religious. On 27 Januarymore than 1, people died as a result of a series of explosions at an army munitions dump in Lagos. Many of the victims had fallen into a canal and drowned as they tried to leave the northern neighborhood of Ikeja.
In February, some people were killed in Lagos in ethnic clashes between Yorubas and Hausa. Thousands fled their homes. In November, more than people were killed in riots between Muslims and Christians in Kaduna, following the publication of a newspaper article suggesting that the prophet Muhammad would have wished to marry one of the Miss World contestants competing in that beauty pageant to be held in Abuja on 7 December.
The pageant was subsequently moved to London. Also in November, the Nigerian government stated that it would intervene to save the life of Amina Lawal, a year old woman sentenced to death by stoning after she was found guilty in a Shariah court of having had extra-marital sex. Her case provoked large-scale protests from the international community.
In Octoberthe International Court of Justice ruled in favor of Cameroon in its territorial dispute with Nigeria over the oil-rich Bakassi peninsula. Fighting between the two countries over the region broke out inat which point Cameroon requested a world court ruling on the border dispute. The decision is not subject to appeal. Nigerians, once dominated by the military, have become disappointed in the civilian rule initiated in But Nigerians have had to contend with increasing poverty, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, declining standards in health and education, and a stagnant economy.
From until the end ofapproximately 10, people had been killed in political and sectarian fighting. In DecemberChief Ajibola Ige, the sitting attorney general and minister of justice of the federal government, was murdered in the bedroom of his home at Ibadan. Chief Ige's murder has remained unsolved, as have those of several other high-ranking politicians from the ruling PDP. These murders, a rising wave of crime in the country, as well as the militarization of the Niger Delta, cast doubts on the efficacy of the security agencies.
For many, the general elections of were critical to finding solutions to these and other questions, and could move the country forward. In24 new political parties had joined the fray after the Supreme Court declared as invalid some of the conditions that the Independent National Electoral Commission INEC had imposed on associations seeking a license to operate as political parties.
The presidential race attracted more candidates, but public debates on issues were no clearer or deeper. The larger political parties did not face much challenge either. The elections left the PDP in greater control of government. In the presidential poll, Obasanjo won The AD, with a large Yoruba following, did not field a candidate in apparent support of Obasanjo's candidacy.
The results were contested at all levels. Buhari filed a suit against Obasanjo's victory that went all the way to the Supreme Court; it also drew a dissenting opinion in favor of the appellant. In Julyan attempt was made with support from a detachment of the police to forcibly remove from power Chris Ngige, governor of Anambra State in the east. Subsequent efforts involved the burning down of major government symbols and the withdrawal of security details from Ngige.
A senior police officer, a judge, and several minor actors in the saga were dismissed.
This followed allegations of corruption against the governor, Joshua Dariye, who countered that he had donated some of the missing money to the PDP. In Septemberyet another PDP governor, this time of oil-rich Bayelsa State, was arrested in London on suspicion of money-laundering. He returned to Nigeria but was removed from office and prosecuted for various economic offences.
At the federal level, Obasanjo had been locked in battle with several segments of the PDP. He also openly accused his deputy, Vice President Atiku Abubakar of disloyalty after an apparent disagreement over succession in Obasanjo's economic policy was controversial. Incessant increases in the price of petroleum products put his administration at disagreement with organized labor, and civil society.
The PDP enacted a law that made it more difficult to form and sustain a single labor federation in Nigeria. Obasanjo received a debt-forgiveness deal with Nigeria's creditors and consistently averred a commitment to antipoverty programs.
Not many jobs were being created and federal government units were downsized. In Obasanjo served notice that thousands of jobs were to be erased in the public sector. The next elections were scheduled for The military government that took command after the December coup suspended the constitution. The president held executive and legislative authority, in consultation with the member Armed Forces Ruling Council, and appointed the cabinet. After the Abacha seizure of power on 17 Novemberthe constitution remained suspended.
A member Federal Executive Council managed government departments, and the PRC dissolved the elected national and state legislatures and the local councils, replacing elected civilian governors with military administrators. The PRC also announced that it would hold a constitutional conference to plan for the future and to establish a timetable for a return to democracy. On 21 NovemberAbacha signed a decree restoring the constitution Second Republic.
Nonetheless, legal experts disagreed which documents should form the basis for Nigerian government and law. The new constitution, which became law in Mayrestored constitutional rule under the Fourth Republic. Nigeria became a federal republic comprising 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory at Abuja. The national legislature is bicameral with Senate seats and House seats.
Members of both houses are elected by universal suffrage age 18 to a four-year term. The president is elected to no more than two four-year terms. The president chairs a Federal Executive Council, which he appoints.
Legislative and presidential elections were held in April The results gave Obasanjo and many governors their second and final term under the Constitution. Policies and platforms of the major parties were similar, generally supporting welfare and development programs. The first national elections in independent Nigeria, held on 30 Decemberwere contested by two political alliances: Northerners feared Ibo domination of the federal government and sought support from the Yoruba, while the UPGA accused the Muslim Northerners of anti-Southern, antidemocratic, and anti-Christian attitudes.
The election results, announced on 6 Januarygave a large majority to the NNA of constituencies. Before the balloting began, the UPGA charged that unconstitutional practices were taking place and announced that it would boycott the elections, in which only 4 million of the 15 million eligible voters actually cast ballots.
This was followed by announcement of an enlarged and reorganized cabinet on 31 March. Ten months later the Balewa government was overthrown, the military assumed power, and on 24 May all political parties were banned.
When legal political activity resumed infive parties emerged: Shagari, the NPN presidential candidate, received the most votes Each of the five parties won control of at least two state governments in elections held 21 and 28 July However, there were widespread charges of irregularities in the balloting. All existing political parties were dissolved after the December coup.
The two-chamber National Assembly to which they were elected never was granted genuine power. On 12 JuneNigerians apparently elected Moshood Abiolaa wealthy businessman, president, but General Ibrahim Babangida annulled the vote over alleged corruption. Ernest Shonekan replaced him for the interim, and on 17 November General Sani Abacha took power, suspending all partisan and political activity.
The May legislative elections were widely boycotted by foes of Abacha's military regime. On 1 OctoberAbacha announced a three-year program for return to civilian rule. Political partiessuppressed by the military government, were allowed to form in July Three parties were registered by the Provisional Ruling Council for participation in local, state and national elections: International observers reported some flaws, but generally approved the results. The three registered parties suffered from leadership squabbles.
Two factions claimed leadership of the AD, which is dominant only in the Yoruba southwest. In December24 new political parties registered for the elections. The elections were held as scheduled. They confirmed the PDP as Nigeria's largest political party. The ANPP was the second-largest party. There were 33 registered political parties as of early The 12 preexisting states were reconstituted into 19 states as follows: Seven other states remained basically unchanged except for minor boundary adjustments and some name changes; these are with original names where applicable, in parentheses Lagos, Kaduna North-CentralKano, Bendel Mid-WestCross River South-EasternRivers, and Kwara.
The Federal Capital Territory of Abuja comprises 7, sq km 2, sq mi and was carved from the central part of the country between Kaduna, Plateau, and Niger states. By law, a fixed proportion of federally collected revenue is allotted monthly to the states and localities. Under the military regime established inall state governors were appointed by the ruling council; inall but one governor was a military officer.
The governor of each state served as chairman of an appointed state executive council. By the end of the Babangida regime in Augustthere were 30 states as ofthere were 36 governed by elected state legislatures and governors.
On 18 Novemberthese governments were abolished and the civilian governors were replaced by military commanders. The transition to civilian rule announced 20 July led to local council elections on 5 December The state governorships and legislatures were contested on 11 January As of mid, the PDP controlled 21 of 36 state governments.
After the election, PDP controlled 28 state governments. Nearly all local government councils in these states, and many in states controlled by other parties were also run by the PDP.
However, the commitment of its leadership to a system of autonomous local government was questionable. Shortly after Maythe federal government postponed local government elections to enable a panel appointed by it to examine the workings of the system. The reasoning for postponement was questionable, as the panel's report was not published.
In practice, the judiciary is subject to executive and legislative branch pressure, influence by political leaders at both the state and federal levels, and suffers from corruption and inefficiency. Under the constitution, the regular court system comprises federal and state trial courts, state appeals courts, the Federal Court of Appeal, the Federal Supreme Court, and Shariah Islamic and customary traditional courts of appeal for each state and for the federal capital territory of Abuja.
Courts of the first instance include magistrate or district courts, customary or traditional courts, Shariah courts, and for some specified cases, the state high courts. In principle, customary and Shariah courts have jurisdiction only if both plaintiff and defendant agree, but fear of legal costs, delays, and distance to alternative venues encourage many litigants to choose these courts.
Trials in the regular court system are public and generally respect constitutionally protected individual rights, including a presumption of innocence, the right to be present, to confront witnesses, to present evidence, and to be represented by legal counsel.
However, low compensation for judges, understaffing, poor equipment, bribery, special settlements, and a host of developmental factors decrease the reliability and impartiality of the courts. Under the Abubakar government, military tribunals continued to operate outside the constitutional court system, but they were used less and less frequently as military rule waned; the tribunals officially were disbanded by the implementation of the new constitution and the return to civilian rule.
The tribunals had in the past been used to try both military personnel and civilians accused of various crimes, but groups asserted that these tribunals failed to meet internationally accepted standards for fair trial. In Octoberthe governor of Zamfara signed into law two bills passed by the state legislature aimed at instituting Shariah law in the state. As a result, school children were being segregated by sex in Zamfara schools, some public transportation, and some health facilities.
There were fears among non-Muslims that despite legal provisions, women and other groups would be subjected to discrimination in Shariah courts. As of early11 other northern states had adopted various forms or adaptations of Shariah law, including: Some of these states have already issued sentences of public caning for consumption of alcohol, amputations for stealing, and death by stoning for committing adultery. Some sentences have been carried out, but no life has been taken in the pursuit of a decision by a Shariah court.
Those found guilty for adultery have had the verdicts reversed on appeal. The federal government announced in early that the religious police in Kano State also called Hisba had been assuming police functions with no officiali authorization to do so, thus acting beyond their powers. The same argument was advanced against ethnic militias, such as the Odu'a People's Congress. The judiciary has faced testing moments since the polls.
Obasanjo himself accused the judiciary of corruption; some legal practitioners also traded accusations against judges in open court. Election petitions at all levels brought with them allegations of bribery and witness tampering. Acting through the National Judicial Council, a body chaired by Nigeria's Chief Justicethe judiciary moved to cleanse its own house.
Several judicial officers were dismissed, disciplined in other ways, or exonerated after due hearing. The stated offenses ranged from receiving undue gratification to passing judgments that were patently illegal or procedurally wrong, or that brought the judiciary to ridicule.
The Army had 62, personnel armed with main battle tanks, Scorpion light tanks, reconnaissance vehicles, over armored personnel carriers, and more than artillery pieces. The Navy had a total strength of 7, personnel, including Coast Guard personnel. The Air Force had 9, personnel. Equipment included 84 combat capable aircraft, including 17 fighters and 36 fighter ground attack aircraft, in addition to 5 attack helicopters, of which 3 were nonoperational.
Paramilitary forces were estimated at 82, personnel and included 2, port security police, a coast guardand a security and civil defense corps. Nigeria is a member of the Nonaligned Movement. The government has supported UN missions and operations in Kosovo est. However, poor economic policy, political instability, and an overreliance on oil exports has created severe structural problems in the economy. Crop yields have not kept pace with the average population growth of 2.
When the oil boom of the s came to an end in the early s, Nigeria's failure to bring domestic and foreign expenditures in line with its lower income led to a rapid buildup of internal and external deficits.
Nigeria deferred payments on its large foreign debt, adopted austerity measures, scaled back ambitious development plans, and introduced a foreign exchange auction system that devalued the naira. These policies had a positive effect and from to real GDP grew at a 5.
However, in real GDP grew at only 4. A crippling blow to the economy came in mid when oil workers in the southeast, unhappy with the way the central government collected oil revenue without giving any back, went on strike.
There were also reports that significant amounts of oil revenue were being lost due to fraudulent practices at the country's oil terminals.
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In response, the Nigerian government appointed two inspection firms to oversee the loading of crude oil tankers. High unemployment and declining productivity hamper growth. As ofthe pace of privatizing state-owned enterprises and balancing the budget was slow, but liberalization of the telecommunications sector was underway. The government has also committed itself to privatizing the country's four state-owned oil refineries, and to developing several small, independently owned refineries.
The rate of HIV infection is on the rise, especially among children, as is income inequality. Although national elections were due to be held in Aprilwhen President Olusegun Obasanjo would be replaced by a new leader, economic reforms begun under him were projected to continue.
Coupled with rising oil prices and production, real GDP growth was forecast to be strong, at 4. Inflation was expected to average The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.
Nigerian statutes as sources of Nigerian law[ edit ] Nigerian legislation may be classified as follows. The colonial era untilpost independence legislationthe military era The post independence legislation [ edit ] The grant of independence to Nigeria was a milestone in the political history of the country.
This period witnessed the consolidation of political gains made during the colonial era. Politicians genuinely focused their lapses in the polity. It achieved for herself a republican status by shaking off the last vestiges of colonial authority.
However, despite the violent violation of its provisions, the constitution remained the subsequent administrations military or otherwise. Military regime, [ edit ] The breakdown of law and order which occurred in the period under review would not be attributed to any defect in the Nigerian legal system. Corrupt practices both in the body politic and all aspects of Nigerian life eroded efficiency and progress.
There were 8 coups generally five were successful and 3 were unsuccessful. Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The president is elected through universal suffrage.