Introduction to the Samurai | Kamakura period (article) | Khan Academy
Seppuku = ritual suicide reserved for Samurai during this Era. Daimyo = a feudal Lord that a Samurai has sworn loyalty to. Not all Samurai were. This calculation determined the allotment of daimyo domains and samurai . so the statue must be heavy, but I don't see any side or lower brace or support. To the higher class Samurai such as Daimyo (大名), Shogun (将軍) or You must thank to your brothers and others for their great help.".
They and their families were transported from place to place in elaborate sedan chairs with a single foot-long beam carried by six bearers. Noble brides were carried in sedan chairs with gold-leaf paper paintings, gilt-copper fittings and a lacquered surface worked with gold powder. In Imperial times nobles were varied around in palanquin with passenger compartments that were often beautifully decorated but alarming small and cramped. One made for the bride of last of the last Tokugawa shogun was adorned with lovely paintings made with gold lacquer bit was only Ordinary people in feudal times had few rights and were subject to the whims and wishes of the ruling samurai and their lords.
Even so Japanese peasants were better off than European serfs. They retained some rights to their land and for the most were spared excessive taxation. Samurai The samurai were roughly the equivalent of feudal knights. Employed by the shogun or daimyo, they were members of hereditary warrior class that followed a strict "code" that defined their clothes, armor and behavior on the battlefield.
But unlike most medieval knights, samurai warriors could read and they were well versed in Japanese art, literature and poetry. Samurai families were considered the elite. They made up only about six percent of the population and included daimyo and the loyal soldiers who fought under them.
Originally conceived as away of dignifying raw military power, the two concepts were synthesized in feudal Japan and later became a key feature of Japanese culture and morality.
The quintessential samurai was Miyamoto Musashi, a legendary early Edo-period swordsman who reportedly killed 60 men before his 30th birthday and was also a painting master.
Samurai-Era Social Hierarchy In Japan, a strict hierarchy of social classes and clearly defined traditional gender roles have their roots in over two thousand years of cultural history. In terms of social classes, merchants or chyonin were beneath the farmers and artisans. Samurai, the social elite, were retainers in the service of the shogun and the daimio. The samurai, who represented the superior male, constituted a bureaucratic and conservative hereditary group.
Warrior Puppets: The Samurai of the Tokugawa Shogunate
The samurai and his sword was more a class symbol than the fierce warrior pictured in American television mythology. These social classes were categorized based on power as well as prestige. Ancient Japanese social hierarchy was majorly segregated into two classes the upper Noble Class and the lower Peasant Class.
These classes were further sub categorized and thus forming a hierarchy. Following are the major classes in the social hierarchy of Ancient Japan: In the Tokugawa period, there were over two hundred daimyo throughout Japan, whose domains varied in size from tiny 10, units of rice productivity to vast over half a million units of rice productivity.
There were three categories of daimyo. Fudai were those daimyo personally allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the time of the Battle of Sekigarhara in Tozama were those daimyo not allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu at the time of the battle, including those who fought against him and those who did not. Shinpan daimyo were Tokugawa family relatives. In its early period, the bakufu designated three branches of the Tokugawa family descending from Ieyasu as daimyo lineages and potential heirs to the office of shogun should the main line fail to produce a suitable male heir.
What was the relationship between the samurai, bushido, seppuku, and the daimyo? | Socratic
Later, three more branches assumed shinpan status, making a total of six. Some but not all of these branches had the Tokugawa surname. For bakufu offices requiring daimyo status, normally, only fudai were eligible to for appointment. Shinpan daimyo occasionally served as bakufu officials, typically as regents for a boy shogun. Tozama were ineligible to become bakufu officials. The fudai domains were small and often clustered around the larger tozama domains.
The first three shoguns worked to create a geographic balance by surrounding tozama domains with the presumably more trustworthy fudai, with the fudai located in positions of strategic importance. Maintaining a balance of power, geographically and otherwise, between all potentially conflicting interests and groups was a conscious policy of the early shoguns. Such oaths would hardly have been worth the paper on which they were written had not the shogun and his government which, of course, included some daimyo--an incentive for these daimyo to preserve the bakufu held the preponderance of military and economic power.
It owned all the gold and silver mines throughout Japan. In theory at least, the daimyo ruled at the pleasure of the shogun, who formally reappointed the daimyo from time to time and had the authority to confiscate or reduce any domain. The first three shoguns often did confiscate domains of daimyo they suspected of disloyalty or other problems. As time when on and the domains became well established, confiscations by the bakufu took place only under highly unusual circumstances.
The Bakufu shogunate was a large bureaucracy. In theory, and sometimes in practice, the shogun ruled as absolute dictator. In fact, some shoguns were weak-willed, incompetent, or simply lazy. The bakufu machinery functioned reasonably well with or without strong shogunal leadership. The two most important agencies within the bakufu were the Senior Councilors roju, literally "elders within" and the Junior Councilors wakadoshiyori, literally, "younger elders".
The Senior Councilors usually consisted of four or five daimyo of a certain type. The whole group met in council to decide important matters of state, such as the selection of a new shogun should the previous one die without naming a successor.
The Senior Councilors also supervised several high-ranking officials such as the commissioners that administered the major cities e. The Senior Councilors were a powerful group. Some shoguns gave them wide latitude; others tried to rein them in. They supervised inspectors, who kept watch over bakufu retainers of sub-daimyo rank. Therefore, in the pattern of confiscated holdings [ mokkan], management should proceed accordingly.
It is commanded thus. Residents shall know this and abide by it. The aforesaid person, in accordance with the will, is appointed to this shiki. As to the fixed annual tax and other services, these shall be paid in accordance with precedent.
The housemen of this province are to obey Tomomasa, perform the imperial guard service, and in general show their loyalty. And he is not, under any pretext, to cause difficulties for the notables of this province. He has been apprised of these instructions. Bakufu relations with the daimyo were complex.
On the battlefield, if the tide of the fight turned against the samurai and his lord, the samurai would help his lord escape by donning the lord's armor and fleeing in a different direction, distracting the enemy army and becoming a casualty to free his master.
All members of a clan were responsible for the actions of their lord. Samurai were mere puppets of their lords, not allowed freedom of thought in matters and constantly expected to do what they were ordered to do.
Fate is in Heaven, the armor is on the breast, success is with the legs. Go to the battlefield firmly confident of victory, and you will come home with no wounds whatever. Engage in combat fully determined to die and you will be alive; wish to survive in the battle and you will surely meet death. When you leave the house determined not to see it again you will come home safely; when you have any thought of returning you will not return.
An introduction to the Samurai
You may not be in the wrong to think that the world is always subject to change, but the warrior must not entertain this way of thinking, for his fate is always determined. Such loyalty led to numerous lives being wasted in battles through ineffective tactics that the samurai blindly followed. If a samurai, in the middle of a battle, found himself in a horribly losing situation and being of no use to the fight, the samurai would find a secluded place and commit seppuku.
Seppuku, honorable and ritualistic suicide, involves the samurai taking his own life by means of opening his abdomen. Some means of seppuku involve a "second" to decapitate the samurai after his initial cut to curtail any unnecessary suffering. This practice was so common that, even on a battlefield, if a samurai committed seppuku, enemy soldiers within the area would cease their attack and one would take the job of "second" for the samurai.
When it comes to death, there is only the quick choice of death. Children of samurai would be sent on arduous errands involving going through cemeteries or witnessing executions to purge them of fear of death.
There is a way of bringing up the child of a samurai. From the time of infancy one should encourage bravery and avoid trivially frightening or teasing the child. If a person is affected by cowardice as a child, it remains a lifetime scar. It is a mistake for parents to thoughtlessly make their children dread lightening, or to have them not go into dark places, or to tell them frightening things in order to stop them from crying.
Furthermore, a child will become timid if he is scolded severely. Education was formulated such that a child would not grow up as an overlord who had too grand of an idea of his power and too little of a grasp on the idea of servitude. Children were split into instructional groups and would follow around a leader who would teach them.
By age ten the children would memorize the instructional texts from the instructors. Between ages ten and fourteen the children were taught, and expected to perform, official etiquette. At age thirteen instruction in the military arts began; archery, swordsmanship, and spear fighting.
At age sixteen the groups were dissolved and individual instruction began. Instruction lasted until age twenty-two. Secrets The same concepts of servitude to their lord and basic military retainership were, of course, the mainstay of the education.