Civil-Military Relations and Military Effectiveness in India | Anit Mukherjee - catchsomeair.us
(p) The Theory of Civil-Military Relations and India The Indian model of civil- military relations, on the This pattern was cemented after the victorious Bangladesh war during which the then Chief of Indian Army Aviation THE state of civil-military relations (CMR) in Bangladesh is not what it should be. And there are many reasons for it. But what is more irksome. SENIOR BANGLADESHI MILITARY OFFICERS' BIOGRAPHIES The Asia Pacific Center for Strategic Studies sponsored a workshop on civil-military relations.
Pakistan, which has long relied heavily on imports, increased its procurement of materials to help build a string of Chinese-backed infrastructure projects after inking a multi-billion dollar investment package with Beijing -- the terms of which are opaque, leading to fears over how Islamabad will pay for it. The economy has also been stung by higher oil prices. Meanwhile, meagre exports such as textiles have taken a hit from cheaper Chinese-produced goods, while foreign remittances have also slowed.
The winners of the election will have "limited time" to act, Fitch ratings agency warned earlier this month. Population growth Conservative Pakistan, with its limited family planning, has one of the highest birth rates in Asia at around three children per woman, according to the World Bank and government figures.
That has led to a fivefold increase of the population sincenow touching million, draft results from last year's census show. The boom is negating hard-won economic and social progress in the developing country, experts have warned. To add to the problem, discussing contraception in public is taboo in Pakistan. Analysts say unless more is done to slow growth, the country's natural resources -- particularly drinking water -- will not be enough to support the population.
Water shortages Pakistan is on the verge of an ecological disaster if authorities do not urgently address looming water shortages, experts say. Official estimates show that by the country will be facing an "absolute scarcity" of water, with less than cubic metres available per person -- just one third of the water available in parched Somalia, according to the UN.
Pakistan has massive Himalayan glaciers, rivers, monsoon rains and floods -- but just three major water storage basins, compared with more than a thousand in South Africa or Canada. As such, surplus water is quickly lost. Political initiative will be essential to building infrastructure to reverse the course of the impending crisis.
People mainly engage in civil society organizations, and popular support is increasingly contingent on positive outcomes of democracy. The Tatmadaw has long been the most influential political actor. While its self-perception is that of a professional army that protects the sovereignty and unity of the Union of Myanmar, it is not under democratic political control.
Rather, the Tatmadaw in its own right has become the basis for the formation of an economic elite, and has hence developed an economic self-interest in the continuation of military rule. Changing civil—military relations, i. After the Tatmadaw displayed some flexibility on issues not deemed to be its primary interests, but little flexibility on questions of the unity, sovereignty and stability of the Union.
Matters of economic development seem to fall somewhere between these two poles. Ethnic armed organizations EAOs. Myanmar has many different types of EAOs, highly diverse in ethnic identity, military strength and engagement strategies towards the Myanmar army and the government. The key questions among EAOs, in the past and today, are how to build ethnic alliances and engage with the state in order to achieve self-determination and equality within a federal state.
Civil society organization CSOs. Myanmar has a multi-layered civil society with a great many types of CSOs, ranging from grassroots movements to more organized and professionalized NGOs. These engage in various roles in the context of limited state presence and capacity and armed conflict mutual self-help, humanitarian relief, public service delivery and political advocacyand with complex relations between CSOs and the state.
There has been considerable growth in CSOs, especially after Cyclone Nargis in and the expansion of political space sincebut most CSOs still have limited political access and influence. Religious institutions have long traditions of providing important services in Myanmar society, especially in education, health services and welfare support, including humanitarian assistance to displaced persons.
The strong and complex links between Buddhism and politics in Myanmar have underpinned the recent re-emergence of Buddhist nationalism. The period since has seen a wave of anti-Muslim rhetoric and violence, especially in northern Rakhine state. After the elections, China regained greater influence, not least through its active role in the Myanmar peace negotiations, accompanied by efforts at improving its image through corporate social responsibility programmes and engagement with a broad range of stakeholders.
Economic and social situation Economy and society. Myanmar has one of the fastest-growing economies in Southeast Asia, with average economic growth of 7. Members of the urban middle class in areas dominated by the majority Bamar ethnic group have been the major beneficiaries of the new reforms, whereas the economic benefits for rural constituencies have been less noticeable, especially in conflict-affected ethnic states where land-grabbing has been widespread.
FDI and sources of growth. Myanmar has a pressing need for foreign direct investment FDI. Among other things, Myanmar has the greatest power-sector investment needs among the countries of Southeast Asia. In —, investors became increasingly cautious and worried about the slow pace of economic reform Vakulchuk et al. Informal economy and corruption. This economy is upheld by informal elite pacts that were solidified under the military era, involving many who are members of the military and crony companies.
For example, half of the multi-billion USD jade trade is illegal. The informal sector is linked to corruption, drug trafficking, smuggling, illegal migration and cross-border trade. Although Myanmar has gradually improved its ranking in the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index, moving from th place in to th out of countries in Transparency Internationalcorruption remains widespread and pervasive.
The lack of an efficient regulatory system and effective laws explains why the informal system has become so widespread. In addition, political instability and the Rakhine crisis create serious concerns for foreign investors. Hydropower generation is controversial in Myanmar.
It feeds ethnic tensions in various parts of the country, and is likely to remain a major source of domestic social and political tension in the near future. Large-scale dam construction projects often cause discontent among the local population due to lack of proper stakeholder consultation and coordination, often leading to displacement and environmental degradation.
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With the NLD government in place, Chinese and other foreign companies are increasingly attempting to involve civil society in consultations, but with limited success thus far. Myanmar is rich in onshore and offshore hydrocarbon resources. The upstream petroleum business is open to foreign investors, whereas downstream is restricted. Due to limited local processing capacity, Myanmar continues to import a substantial share of its petrol and diesel, mainly from Singapore and Thailand.
Gas reserves are more plentiful, with billion cubic meters of proven natural gas, similar to the reserves of Thailand. Fish farming plays an important role in ensuring food security, employment and SME growth. But the fisheries remain underprioritized by the government and suffer from poor management as well as the lack of infrastructure, modern technology and impact assessments.
The potential of coastal and ocean fisheries remain largely unrealized.
Forums - Bangladesh Defence Forum | বাংলাদেশ সামরিক ফোরাম
Myanmar suffers from large-scale deforestation that has accelerated in recent decades. The forest industry has been grossly mismanaged: There are two main drivers: Land rights and land disputes also complicate forest management.
The incentives behind deforestation are rooted in the opportunity costs related to different land uses and land tenure rights. A peace agreement could put additional pressure on forests and accelerate deforestation: Control over natural resources has been a major driver of conflicts in ethnic areas. The government has shown a commitment to adopt international standards in governing the mining sector, for instance by joining the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative in However, there is a long way to go before real progress in governing the mining sector is achieved.COAS Buratai Divulges Efforts Taken To Improve Civil-Military Relations,Others Pt.1 -Live Event-
Military-owned companies and their cronies are heavily involved in resource extraction, often in conflict-affected areas. Some areas that are contested or controlled by ethnic armed groups have parallel systems of resource governance. Wealth sharing in natural resources is thus a key concern for democratic decentralization and conflict resolution.