The effects of voltage, temperature and time on ceramic dielectrics are summarized outlined and suggestions made as to the breakdown mechanisms involved both .. predicted for devices whose ratio of dielectric thick-. temperature difference across the thickness of the dielectric between the value from Equation 1. age rather than the actual internal breakdown voltage is the. been limited to 85 °C, or with voltage deration to about. °C. . The maximum temperature region the dielectric breakdown strength is relatively independent of the . Based on an equation presented in  the mm free margin was.
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Capacitor - Wikipedia
Solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors were invented by Bell Laboratories in the early s as a miniaturized and more reliable low-voltage support capacitor to complement their newly invented transistor. With the development of plastic materials by organic chemists during the Second World Warthe capacitor industry began to replace paper with thinner polymer films.
One very early development in film capacitors was described in British Patentin Becker developed a "Low voltage electrolytic capacitor with porous carbon electrodes".
Because the double layer mechanism was not known by him at the time, he wrote in the patent: A dielectric orange reduces the field and increases the capacitance.
Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Breakdown in Polymers
A simple demonstration capacitor made of two parallel metal plates, using an air gap as the dielectric. A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. Examples of dielectric media are glass, air, paper, plastic, ceramic, and even a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors.
From Coulomb's law a charge on one conductor will exert a force on the charge carriers within the other conductor, attracting opposite polarity charge and repelling like polarity charges, thus an opposite polarity charge will be induced on the surface of the other conductor. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces,  and the dielectric develops an electric field.
An ideal capacitor is characterized by a constant capacitance C, in farads in the SI system of units, defined as the ratio of the positive or negative charge Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them: Since electrons are much smaller, their average distance between colliding with molecules is about 5.
This is a substantial fraction of the 7.
The first ionization energy needed to dislodge an electron from nitrogen molecule is about The accelerated electron will acquire more than enough energy to ionize a nitrogen molecule. This liberated electron will in turn be accelerated, which will lead to another collision.
Paschen's law - Wikipedia
A chain reaction then leads to avalanche breakdownand an arc takes place from the cascade of released electrons. Each of the collisions randomizes the electron direction, so the electron is not always being accelerated by the electric field —sometimes it travels back towards the cathode and is decelerated by the field.
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Collisions reduce the electron's energy and make it more difficult for it to ionize a molecule. Energy losses from a greater number of collisions require larger voltages for the electrons to accumulate sufficient energy to ionize many gas molecules, which is required to produce an avalanche breakdown. The electron mean free path can become long compared to the gap between the electrodes.
In this case, the electrons might gain lots of energy, but have fewer ionizing collisions. A greater voltage is therefore required to assure ionization of enough gas molecules to start an avalanche.