The State of Armenia-Turkey Relations | Böll SOUTH CAUCASUS
Jan 16, The absence of relations with Armenia hampered Turkey's efforts to The process was supported by the US, EU and Russia with Russian, US. Armenian men and older boys being rounded up by Turkish soldiers . American Relations with Turkey, An Economic Interpretation (Philadel-. Turkish-Israeli relations and U.S. non-recognition of the Armenian Genocide .. This potential threat is often raised by Turkey, but also by American political.
Having started in early s as the Track 2 component of the semi-official Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation Commission, and intensified in the period of the Protocol negotiations in late s, the civil society collaborations entered a qualitatively new phase in the recent years.
Decoupled from the official track and led by now well-established civil society organizations with a long track-record of cross-border collaboration, they were able to sustain and deepen the relations between the societies despite the frost in the official track. Sincethe majority of civil society activities between Turkey and Armenia have been held under the umbrella of the Armenia-Turkey Normalization Process supported by the EU and the Swedish Foreign Ministry.
The program provides funding for the various projects of the Consortium members on arts, media, academic analysis, travel grants, fellowships, summer schools, etc.
For example, the travel grant program received applications and individuals benefited from it. In addition to the activities of Consortium members, the Program also provides sub-grants to support the cross-border collaboration of an extended group of civil-society actors.
So far, applications were made to the sub-grant scheme and 25 of them have been supported on the topics such as history education, environment, artistic collaboration, professional exchanges, or youth dialogues.
It is assumed more than a thousand individuals became participants of the entire program to the date. While smaller in scale, collaborations exist also outside of the mentioned consortium. One of such initiative has been the Beyond Borders: Starting fromthis cross-border group of women from Armenia and Turkey came together to build trust and promote peace activism.
Their activities involve retreats and performances. How the Process can be Supported?
Despite the stagnation on the political track, the interaction between the people of Armenia and Turkey continues. The civil society initiatives created socialization among people that made it possible to think, travel, work, and create together. To maintain and extend this momentum, there should be more support to the civil track.
In Turkey, the priority of many donors has been the promotion of democracy, the rule of law and human right. Only few of the donors have normalization of Turkey-Armenia relations in their agenda. The Armenia-Turkey Normalization Process Consortium mentioned above is one of the few programs in the field and proved effective in Turkey-Armenia context.
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While consortia of major NGOs represent a bureaucratically convenient model of funding, the donor support should not be limited to them, as the involvement of new actors and grassroots activists is key for the development of a critical mass of changemakers.
Currently, the non-Consortium members can only receive small and short-term grants, which makes it difficult to plan and implement long-term and strategic initiatives. The existing donors could consider avenues of support for long-term projects by non-Consortium members or other donors might fill this gap.
On the other hand, the Program receives many applications for sub-grant scheme but can only fund a small portion of it.
The State of Armenia-Turkey Relations
Diversification of the funding instruments and the involvement of new donors would help to extend the impact. Importantly, the work on the improvement of Armenia-Turkey relations does not always need to be joint or parallel. For the most part of the last two decades, the democratization process in Armenia was stagnant and its civil society and independent academia were newborn and slow to develop. In these years, the academics and civil society in Turkey worked actively to reform their own society and to reshape the narratives in regard to Armenians and Armenia.
Armenia–Turkey relations - Wikipedia
Today, with Armenia returning to the path of democratization, the atmosphere is ripe for refocusing on Armenia, and working to reshape the image of Turks and Turkey; enacting structural changes in legislation, education, media, and other key spheres.
The Turkish-Israeli Relationship, Changin It has recognized the State of Israel as early as de facto and de jure51 being the first country of the world whose majority of the population is Muslim to do so, and it is still, to this date, one of the only Muslim countries to have done so. Given that the peripheral alliance was secret and has remained so until this day, there are no open archives or signed documents outlining the scope of the alliance. As a result, the best that can be gleaned from the secret relationship between Turkey and Israel at this time is a series of understandings that were reached between the leaders of each country and the recollection of these leaders.
Bengio 52in her description of the alliance, outlines the highly strategic nature of the Turkish-Israeli relationship. Military cooperation between Turkey and Israel was first initiated during this time, along with intelligence sharing that included biannual meetings between the heads of military intelligence.
Of the points that were made public, they include such topics as joint naval and air operations, mutual sharing of seaports, and permission for the Israeli Air Force to train over Turkish airspace. Furthermore, this arrangement was intended at the time of signing to be very much directed toward a partnership in combating terrorism. It has been perceived, particularly in Arab countries, as a way of promoting Israeli interests, but also American ones. It has, apparently, not. It arguably hampered U.
It was a very negative signal sent by Ankara and it likely broke the climate of great trust between both diplomacies. However, it is to note that Turkey succeeded in maintaining its geopolitical and military importance, notably by allowing the U.
In the meantime it did not reduce its commitment to its firm involvement in NATO, and the strategic relations between both countries slowly re-improved.
The deterioration of the Turkish-Israeli relationship posed a clear problem to U. It reappeared as a model of democracy in the region and was sometimes referred to as an example for Tunisian, Egyptian, Libyan, Yemenite, Syrian, etc. It showed the U.
This new rapprochement was symbolized, in earlyby the installation on Turkish soil of new U. Although the level of confidence is not as high as it used to be, and although it is clear that the AKP leadership in Ankara wants to maintain its pro-Palestinian official stance, both countries have apparently reached a new modus vivendi over the past few months. In MarchIsrael, apparently strongly pushed by the U. It may even appear that Turkey does gain further importance when its partnership with the U.
We can assume that it will remain the same in the future, except if Ankara clearly decides to put an end to its cooperation with the West, which is quite unlikely at this stage. For this reason, and for a few others developed in this paper, it is quite difficult for U.