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These are technologies driven by efforts in the pharmaceutical, agriculture, and .. by the Food and Drug Administration and pre-new drug application candidates a relationship to the language of 21st century biology that is similar to the Today, microencapsulation technology is being used in water treatment (to. The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or . of sufficient length to look at the relationship between drinking water weight loss .. fruit drink to plain water on snack intake in two experiments in pre-schoolers. Military Nutrition Research Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and Its early experiments were based on bread, milk and wine. a key factor in the creation of the United States Food and Drug Administration in A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in.

Plants are important in maintaining a healthy environment, for example, by controlling erosion and water pollution, and by helping to reduce air pollution.

They improve the environment for human activities everywhere—from indoor spaces to vast wilderness areas. The role of terrestrial plants and marine phytoplankton in maintaining an environment suitable for human habitation is inadequately appreciated, but there is a growing recognition of the urgent need to illuminate the role of plants. The accumulated effects of more than a century of industrial activity, explosive population growth, severe shifts in land use, and other effects of human use of the earth show that human activities can overpower the buffering effects of the natural processes that regulate global climate.

The health and wellbeing of the human race could well rest on our achieving a better understanding on which to base a more reasoned exploitation of plant life. Unique and Scientifically Interesting Properties of Plants Plants differ from animals in several important ways.

The growth of a plant from an undifferentiated cell into a complete and mature organism requires only a few hormones. Moreover, plant cells are totipotent: It is possible to regenerate a whole plant from a single leaf or root cell.

In contrast, specific cells the germ line of an animal in early development form the germ cells. Plants have no germ line in this sense and produce sexual organs and gametes from somatic tissue late in their development. Plants are virtually the sole source of new oxygen and carbohydrates on the planet.

Light is harvested by unique organelles, the chloroplasts. Plants synthesize the 20 amino acids required for proteins, including the 10 amino acids that humans are unable to produce. Moreover, in a unique symbiotic relationship with some plants, microorganisms can fix atmospheric nitrogen for plant use in the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, and other compounds.

Plants lack the major organ systems present in animals. Yet, their physiology permits them to respond to their environment. Instead of an immune system, they have inducible disease resistance mechanisms that enable them to make natural toxins against fungal and bacterial pathogens.

Instead of a nervous system, they have a repertoire of receptors and pigments that allow them to respond to their environment. Instead of a muscular and skeletal system, they have a novel set of fibers for support. They are attached to their substrates, and they can move only by growing or by gaining or losing water.

Plants and Global Warming Atmospheric modelers are trying to evaluate the effects of changes in carbon dioxide concentration on global weather patterns and temperature. Models that predict carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by leaves grown under different environmental conditions can make an important contribution to elucidating global climate change.

Other plant research is needed to develop sensitive ways to determine how much of the light energy absorbed by a leaf is used for photosynthesis for metabolism and growth and how much is simply reradiated as heat. The efficiency with which plants use light can vary enormously in response to environmental variables, such as water stress, temperature, disease or insect damage, or fluctuations in the supply of nitrogen or phosphorus.

Theoretical models are being rigorously tested, with a fair degree of success. In addition, remote-sensing techniques are being developed to evaluate the photosynthetic performance of whole plant communities in response to stress. Modeling and experimental studies promise the quantitative information required to put predictions of atmospheric change or lack of it on a sound basis.

Plants in Agriculture, Medicine, and Industry Macroscopic and microscopic plants form the first link in the terrestrial and aquatic food chains. Plants are thus at the heart of agriculture. At Crotone in southern Italy, where an important school of natural philosophy was established by Pythagoras about bce, one of his students, Alcmaeoninvestigated animal structure and described the difference between arteries and veins, discovered the optic nerveand recognized the brain as the seat of the intellect.

As a result of his studies of the development of the embryo, Alcmaeon may be considered the founder of embryology. Although the Greek physician Hippocrateswho established a school of medicine on the Aegean island of Cos around bce, was not an investigator in the sense of Alcmaeon, he did recognize through observations of patients the complex interrelationships involved in the human body.

He also contemplated the influence of environment on human nature and believed that sharply contrasting climates tended to produce a powerful type of inhabitant, whereas even, temperate climates were more conducive to indolence. Although they accepted the physis as the creative force, they differed with regard to the importance of the roles played by earth, air, fire, water, and other elements. Although Anaximenesfor example, who may have been a student of Anaximander, adhered to the then-popular precept that life originated in a mass of mud, he postulated that the actual creative force was to be found in the air and that it was influenced by the heat of the Sun.

Members of the Hippocratic school also believed that all living bodies were made up of four humours —blood, black bile, phlegm, and yellow bile—which supposedly originated in the heart, the spleen, the brain, and the liver, respectively. An imbalance of the humours was thought to cause an individual to be sanguinemelancholyphlegmatic, or choleric.

These words persisted in the medical literature for centuries, a testament to the lengthy popularity of the idea of humoral influences. For centuries it was also believed that an imbalance in the humours was the cause of diseasea belief that resulted in the common practice of bloodletting to rid the body of excessive humours.

Aristotelian concepts Around the middle of the 4th century bce, ancient Greek science reached a climax with Aristotlewho was interested in all branches of knowledge, including biology. Using his observations and theories, Aristotle was the first to attempt a system of animal classification, in which he contrasted animals containing blood with those that were bloodless. The animals with blood included those now grouped as mammals except the whales, which he placed in a separate groupbirds, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes.

The bloodless animals were divided into the cephalopods, the higher crustaceans, the insects, and the testaceans, the last group being a collection of all the lower animals. His careful examination of animals led to the understanding that mammals have lungs, breathe air, are warm-blooded, and suckle their young.

Aristotle was the first to show an understanding of an overall systematic taxonomy and to recognize units of different degrees within the system.

He identified four means of reproduction, including the abiogenetic origin of life from nonliving mud, a belief held by Greeks of that time. Other modes of reproduction recognized by him included budding asexual reproductionsexual reproduction without copulation, and sexual reproduction with copulation.

Aristotle described sperm and ova and believed that the menstrual blood of viviparous organisms those that give birth to living young was the actual generative substance. Although Aristotle recognized that species are not stable and unalterable and although he attempted to classify the animals he observed, he was far from developing any pre-Darwinian ideas concerning evolution.

In fact, he rejected any suggestion of natural selection and sought teleological explanations i. Nevertheless, many important scientific principles, some of which are often thought of as 20th-century concepts, can be ascribed to Aristotle.

The following are a few such: He recognized instead a basic unity of plan among diverse organisms, a principle that is still conceptually and scientifically sound. Further, Aristotle also believed that the entire living world could be described as a unified organization rather than as a collection of diverse groups. Those principles constitute the basis for the biological field of study known as comparative anatomy.

Botanical investigations Of all the works of Aristotle that have survived, none deals with what was later differentiated as botanyalthough it is believed that he wrote at least two treatises on plants. Like Aristotle, Theophrastus was a keen observer, although his works do not express the depth of original thought exemplified by his teacher. In his great work, De historia et causis plantarum The Calendar of Flora,in which the morphology, natural history, and therapeutic use of plants are described, Theophrastus distinguished between the external parts, which he called organs, and the internal parts, which he called tissues.

This was an important achievement because Greek scientists of that period had no established scientific terminology for specific structures. For that reason, both Aristotle and Theophrastus were obliged to write very long descriptions of structures that can be described rapidly and simply today. Because of that difficulty, Theophrastus sought to develop a scientific nomenclature by giving special meaning to words that were then in more or less current use; for example, karpos for fruit and perikarpion for seed vessel.

Esculapio Although he did not propose an overall classification system for plants, more than of which are mentioned in his writings, Theophrastus did unite many species into what are now considered genera. In addition to writing the earliest detailed description of how to pollinate the date palm by hand and the first unambiguous account of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, he also recorded observations on seed germination and development.

Post-Grecian biological studies With Aristotle and Theophrastus, the great Greek period of scientific investigation came to an end. The most famous of the new centres of learning were the library and museum in Alexandria.

From bce until around the time of Christ, all significant biological advances were made by physicians at Alexandria. One of the most outstanding of those individuals was Herophiluswho dissected human bodies and compared their structures with those of other large mammals.

He recognized the brain, which he described in detail, as the centre of the nervous system and the seat of intelligence. On the basis of his knowledge, he wrote a general anatomical treatisea special one on the eyes, and a handbook for midwives.

Although he was wrong in supposing that blood flows from the veins into the arteries, he was correct in assuming that small interconnecting vessels exist. He thus suspected but did not see the presence of capillaries ; he thought, however, that the blood changed into air, or pneuma, when it reached the arteries, to be pumped throughout the body. Perhaps the last of the ancient biological scientists of note was Galen of Pergamuma Greek physician who practiced in Rome during the middle of the 2nd century ce.

His early years were spent as a surgeon at the gladiatorial arena, which gave him the opportunity to observe details of human anatomy. At that time in Rome, however, it was considered improper to dissect human bodies, and, as a result, a detailed study of human anatomy was not possible.

The Arab world and the European Middle Ages After Galen there were no significant biological investigations for many centuries. It is sometimes claimed that the rise of Christianity was the cause of the decline in science. However, while it is true that Christianity did not favour the questioning attitude of the Greeks, science had already receded significantly by the end of the 2nd century ce, a time when Christianity was still an obscure sect.

Arab domination of biology During the almost 1, years that science was dormant in Europe, the Arabs, who by the 9th century had extended their sphere of influence as far as Spain, became the custodians of science and dominated biology, as they did other disciplines. At the same time, as the result of a revival of learning in China, new technical inventions flowed from there to the West.

The Chinese had discovered how to make paper and how to print from movable type, two achievements that were to have an inestimable effect upon learning. Another important advance that also occurred during that time was the introduction of the so-called Arabic numerals into Europe from India. From the 3rd until the 11th century, biology was essentially an Arab science.

Although the Arabic scholars themselves were not great innovators, they discovered the works of such men as Aristotle and Galen, translated those works into Arabic, studied them, and wrote commentaries about them. In it the author emphasized the unity of nature and recognized relationships between different groups of organisms. Muslim physician Avicenna was an outstanding scientist who lived during the late 10th and early 11th centuries; he was the true successor to Aristotle.

His writings on medicine and drugswhich were particularly authoritative and remained so until the Renaissancedid much to take the works of Aristotle back to Europe, where they were translated into Latin from Arabic. Development of botany and zoology During the 12th century the growth of biology was sporadic. Nevertheless, it was during that time that botany was developed from the study of plants with healing properties; similarly, from veterinary medicine and the pleasures of the hunt came zoology.

Because of the interest in medicinal plants, herbs in general began to be described and illustrated in a realistic manner. Although Arabic science was well developed during the period and was far in advance of Latin, Byzantineand Chinese cultures, it began to show signs of decline. Latin learning, on the other hand, rapidly increasing, was best exemplified perhaps by the midth-century German scholar Albertus Magnus Saint Albert the Greatwho was probably the greatest naturalist of the Middle Ages.

His biological writings De vegetabilibus, seven books, and De animalibus, 26 books were based on the classical Greek authorities, predominantly Aristotle. But in spite of that classical basis, a significant amount of his work contained new observations and facts; for example, he described with great accuracy the leaf anatomy and venation of the plants he studied.

Saint Albertus MagnusSaint Albertus Magnus, who worked to meld theology and Aristotelianism and was probably the greatest naturalist of the Middle Ages. Like his Greek predecessors, he believed in spontaneous generation; he also believed that animals were more perfect than plants, because they required two individuals for the sexual act. Because Aquinas was a rationalist, he declared that God created the reasoning mind; hence, by true intellectual processes of reasoning, man could not arrive at a conclusion that was in opposition to Christian thought.

Acceptance of this philosophy made possible a revival of rational learning that was consistent with Christian belief. Revitalization of anatomy Italyduring the Middle Ages, became the most-active scientific centre, although its major interests were concentrated on agriculture and medicine. A development of particular significance at that time was the introduction of dissection into medical schools, a step that revitalized the study of anatomy. It is thought that early in his career, contrary to the trend at the time, in which the teacher left the actual dissection to an underling, Mondino performed many dissections himself.

Later, however, it is likely that he increasingly left the work to his assistants.

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Mondino adhered closely to the works of the Greeks and Arabs, and he thus repeated their errors. The Renaissance Resurgence of biology Beginning in Italy during the 14th century, there was a general ferment within the culture itself, which, together with the rebirth of learning partly as a result of the rediscovery of Greek workis referred to as the Renaissance.

Interestingly, it was the artists, rather than the professional anatomists, who were intent upon a true rendering of the bodies of animals, including humans, and thus were motivated to gain their knowledge firsthand by dissection. No individual better exemplifies the Renaissance than Leonardo da Vinciwhose anatomical studies of the human form during the late s and early s were so far in advance of the age that they included details not recognized until a century later.

Furthermore, while dissecting animals and examining their structure, Leonardo compared them with the structure of humans. Generally O-methylation of hydroxyl groups of flavonoids decreases their radical scavenging capacity [ 76 ].

Occurrence, position, structure, and total number of sugar moieties in flavonoid flavonoids glycosides play an important role in antioxidant activity. Aglycones are more potent antioxidants than their corresponding glycosides.

There are reports that the antioxidant properties of flavonol glycosides from tea declined as the number of glycosidic moieties increased [ 78 ]. Though glycosides are usually weaker antioxidants than aglycones, bioavailability is sometimes enhanced by a glucose moiety.

In the diet, flavonoid glycosidic moieties occur most frequently at the 3- or 7-position [ 79 ]. Increasing degree of polymerization enhances the effectiveness of procyanidins against a variety of radical species. Procyanidin dimers and trimers are more effective than monomeric flavonoids against superoxide anion.

Tetramers exhibit greater activity against peroxynitrite and superoxide mediated oxidation than trimers, while heptamers and hexamers demonstrate significantly greater superoxide scavenging properties than trimers and tetramers [ 80 ]. Hepatoprotective Activity Several flavonoids such as catechin, apigenin, quercetin, naringenin, rutin, and venoruton are reported for their hapatoprotective activities [ 81 ].

Different chronic diseases such as diabetes may lead to development of hepatic clinical manifestations. Anthocyanins have drawn increasing attention because of their preventive effect against various diseases. Increased Gclc expression results in a decrease in hepatic ROS levels and proapoptotic signaling.

Furthermore, C3G treatment lowers hepatic lipid peroxidation, inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines, and protects against the development of hepatic steatosis [ 82 ]. Silymarin is a flavonoids having three structural components silibinin, silydianine, and silychristine extracted from the seeds and fruit of milk thistle Silybum marianum Compositae.

Silymarin has been reported to stimulate enzymatic activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and subsequent biosynthesis of RNA and protein, resulting in DNA biosynthesis and cell proliferation leading to liver regeneration only in damaged livers [ 83 ].

Silymarin increases proliferating hepatocytes in response to FB1 Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides induced cell death without modulation of cell proliferation in normal livers. Silymarin has clinical applications in the treatment of cirrhosis, ischemic injury, and toxic hepatitis induced by various toxins such as acetaminophen, and toxic mushroom [ 85 ].

Hepatoprotective activities were observed in flavonoids isolated from Laggera alata against carbon-tetrachloride CCl4- induced injury in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes and in rats with hepatic damage.

Histopathological examinations also revealed the improvement in damaged liver with the treatment of flavonoid [ 86 ]. Several clinical investigations have shown the efficacy and safety of flavonoids in the treatment of hepatobiliary dysfunction and digestive complaints, such as sensation of fullness, loss of appetite, nausea, and abdominal pain. Equisetum arvense flavonoids as well as hirustrin and avicularin isolated from some other sources is reported to provide protection against chemically induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells [ 8788 ].

Antibacterial Activity Flavonoids are known to be synthesized by plants in response to microbial infection; thus it should not be surprising that they have been found in vitro to be effective antimicrobial substances against a wide array of microorganisms. Flavonoid rich plant extracts from different species have been reported to possess antibacterial activity [ 70728990 ].

Several flavonoids including apigenin, galangin, flavone and flavonol glycosides, isoflavones, flavanones, and chalcones have been shown to possess potent antibacterial activity [ 91 ]. Antibacterial flavonoids might be having multiple cellular targets, rather than one specific site of action. One of their molecular actions is to form complex with proteins through nonspecific forces such as hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects, as well as by covalent bond formation.

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Thus, their mode of antimicrobial action may be related to their ability to inactivate microbial adhesins, enzymes, cell envelope transport proteins, and so forth. Lipophilic flavonoids may also disrupt microbial membranes [ 9293 ].

Catechins, the most reduced form of the C3 unit in flavonoid compounds, have been extensively researched due to their antimicrobial activity. These compounds are reported for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus mutans, Shigella, and other bacteria [ 9495 ].

The catechins have been shown to inactivate cholera toxin in Vibrio cholera and inhibit isolated bacterial glucosyltransferases in S. Naringenin and sophoraflavanone G have intensive antibacterial activity against methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and streptococci.

An alteration of membrane fluidity in hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions may be attributed to this effect which suggests that these flavonoids might reduce the fluidity of outer and inner layers of membranes [ 99 ]. The correlation between antibacterial activity and membrane interference supports the theory that flavonoids may demonstrate antibacterial activity by reducing membrane fluidity of bacterial cells. A hydroxyl group at position 5 in flavanones and flavones is important for their activity against MRSA.

Substitution with C8 and C10 chains may also enhance the antistaphylococcal activity of flavonoids belonging to the flavanol class [ ]. Haraguchi and colleagues [ ] studied antibacterial activity of two flavonoids, licochalcones A and C, isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata against S.

This activity was similar to the mode of action of antibiotics inhibiting respiratory chain, since energy is required for active uptake of various metabolites as well as for biosynthesis of macromolecules.

After further studies it was suggested that the inhibition site of these flavonoids was between CoQ and cytochrome in the bacterial respiratory electron transport chain [ ].

There are many examples that lend support to the prowess of phytoconstituents derived from edible and medicinal plants as potent antibacterial agents [ — ]. Anti-Inflammatory Activity Inflammation is a normal biological process in response to tissue injury, microbial pathogen infection, and chemical irritation. Inflammation is initiated by migration of immune cells from blood vessels and release of mediators at the site of damage.

This process is followed by recruitment of inflammatory cells, release of ROS, RNS, and proinflammatory cytokines to eliminate foreign pathogens, and repairing injured tissues.

In general, normal inflammation is rapid and self-limiting, but aberrant resolution and prolonged inflammation cause various chronic disorders [ ]. The immune system can be modified by diet, pharmacologic agents, environmental pollutants, and naturally occurring food chemicals. Certain members of flavonoids significantly affect the function of the immune system and inflammatory cells [ ].

A number of flavonoids such as hesperidin, apigenin, luteolin, and quercetin are reported to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Flavonoids may affect specifically the function of enzyme systems critically involved in the generation of inflammatory processes, especially tyrosine and serine-threonine protein kinases [].

The inhibition of kinases is due to the competitive binding of flavonoids with ATP at catalytic sites on the enzymes.

These enzymes are involved in signal transduction and cell activation processes involving cells of the immune system.

It has been reported that flavonoids are able to inhibit expression of isoforms of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and lipooxygenase, which are responsible for the production of a great amount of nitric oxide, prostanoids, leukotrienes, and other mediators of the inflammatory process such as cytokines, chemokines, or adhesion molecules [ ]. Flavonoids also inhibit phosphodiesterases involved in cell activation. Much of the anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoid is on the biosynthesis of protein cytokines that mediate adhesion of circulating leukocytes to sites of injury.

Certain flavonoids are potent inhibitors of the production of prostaglandins, a group of powerful proinflammatory signaling molecules [ ]. Reversal of the carrageenan induced inflammatory changes has been observed with silymarin treatment. It has been found that quercetin inhibit mitogen stimulated immunoglobulin secretion of IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes in vitro [ ].

Several flavonoids are reported to inhibit platelet adhesion, aggregation, and secretion significantly at 1—10 mM concentration [ ]. The effect of flavonoid on platelets has been related to the inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by carbon monoxide [ ].

Alternatively, certain flavonoids are potent inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, and this may in part explain their ability to inhibit platelet function. Anticancer Activity Dietary factors play an important role in the prevention of cancers. Fruits and vegetables having flavonoids have been reported as cancer chemopreventive agents [ 72].

In addition, moderate wine drinkers also seem to have a lower risk to develop cancer of the lung, endometrium, esophagus, stomach, and colon [ ]. The critical relationship of fruit and vegetable intake and cancer prevention has been thoroughly documented.

It has been suggested that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods [ ]. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of flavonoids on the initiation and promotion stages of the carcinogenicity including influences on development and hormonal activities [ ]. Major molecular mechanisms of action of flavonoids are given as follows: Mutations of p53 are among the most common genetic abnormalities in human cancers.

The inhibition of expression of p53 may lead to arrest the cancer cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Flavonoids are found to downregulate expression of mutant p53 protein to nearly undetectable levels in human breast cancer cell lines [ ].

Tyrosine kinases are a family of proteins located in or near the cell membrane involved in the transduction of growth factor signals to the nucleus. Their expression is thought to be involved in oncogenesis via an ability to override normal regulatory growth control. Drugs inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity are thought to be possible antitumor agents without the cytotoxic side effects seen with conventional chemotherapy.

Quercetin was the first tyrosine kinase inhibiting compound tested in a human phase I trial [ ]. Heat shock proteins form a complex with mutant p53, which allows tumor cells to bypass normal mechanisms of cell cycle arrest. Heat shock proteins also allow for improved cancer cell survival under different bodily stresses. Flavonoids are known to inhibit production of heat shock proteins in several malignant cell lines, including breast cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer [ ].

Recently it has been shown that the flavanol epigallocatechingallate inhibited fatty acid synthase FAS activity and lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells, an effect that is strongly associated with growth arrest and cell death []. In contrast to most normal tissues expression of FAS is markedly increased in various human cancers. Upregulation of FAS occurs early in tumor development and is further enhanced in more advanced tumors [ ].

Quercetin is known to produce cell cycle arrest in proliferating lymphoid cells. In addition to its antineoplastic activity, quercetin exerted growth-inhibitory effects on several malignant tumor cell lines in vitro. It has been experimentally proved that increased signal transduction in human breast cancer cells is markedly reduced by quercetin acting as an antiproliferative agent [ ].

Barnes [ ] has extensively reviewed the anticancer effects of genistein on in vitro and in vivo models. In an study to determine effects of isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A on mammary carcinogenesis, genistein was found to suppress the development of chemically induced mammary cancer without reproductive or endocrinological toxicities.

Neonatal administration of genistein a flavonoid exhibited a protective effect against the subsequent development of induced mammary cancer in rats [ ]. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside, is known to inhibit azoxymethanol induced colon and mammary cancers in rats [ ]. The anticancer properties of flavonoids contained in citrus fruits have been reviewed by Carroll et al.

Several flavonols, flavones, flavanones, and the isoflavone biochanin A are reported to have potent antimutagenic activity [ ]. A carbonyl function at C-4 of the flavone nucleus was found to be essential for their activity. Flavoneacetic acid has also been shown to have antitumor effects [ ]. In earlier studies ellagic acid, robinetin, quercetin, and myricetin have been shown to inhibit the tumorigenicity of BP-7, 8-diol-9, and epoxide-2 on mouse skin [ ].

Higher consumption of phytoestrogens, including isoflavones and other flavonoids, has been shown to provide protection against prostate cancer risk [ ].

It is well known that due to oxidative stress cancer initiation may take place and thus potent antioxidants show potential to combat progression of carcinogenesis.

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Potential of antioxidant as an anticancer agent depends on its competence as an oxygen radical inactivator and inhibitor [ 7072]. Therefore diets rich in radical scavengers would diminish the cancer-promoting action of some radicals [ ]. Antiviral Activity Natural compounds are an important source for the discovery and the development of novel antiviral drugs because of their availability and expected low side effects. Naturally occurring flavonoids with antiviral activity have been recognized since the s and many reports on the antiviral activity of various flavonoids are available.

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Search of effective drug against human immunodeficiency virus HIV is the need of hour. Most of the work related with antiviral compounds revolves around inhibition of various enzymes associated with the life cycle of viruses. Structure function relationship between flavonoids and their enzyme inhibitory activity has been observed.

Gerdin and Srensso [ ] demonstrated that flavano1 was more effective than flavones and flavonones in selective inhibition of HIV-1, HIV-2, and similar immunodeficiency virus infections. Baicalin, a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Lamieaceaeinhibits HIV-1 infection and replication.