Timeline: India-Pakistan relations | News | Al Jazeera
Since now a days media taking India Pakistan relations issues on priorities so though taking a selfie near barbed wire fencing “somewhere “ at #IndoPak. A cricket match between India and Pakistan is among the most-keenly followed sporting events in the world and it was no different when the. While the India vs Pakistan match in ICC Champions Trophy #CT17 triggered the adrenaline rush on both sides of the border, Mumbai.
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Muslim women are more liberated educated and independent in Indian Kashmir than Muslim women in Pakistan. As many have pointed out, this imagination often excludes Kashmiris themselves. Voices from within are often heard, yet seldom listened to. When slogans of azadi ring across the Valley, the people are termed ungrateful.
But what many Indians fail to recognise or even accept is the reflexive disposition of Kashmiris to resist the nation. Kashmiris embody this disposition from early adolescence. Even those who do not actively participate in the Kashmiri resistance movement verbalise hostility towards the Indian nation in speech and acts. They do not take to arms or to the streets to protest, but collude ideologically and resist passively. They may not be the voices ringing out on the streets, but they shape the discourse through living room conversations.
Modes of passive resistance and disguised ideological insubordination operate differently and can be distinguished from the stone pelting and slogan chanting of the streets.
Many in Kashmir are — or seek to be — employed by the Indian state, yet can be found in private spaces acting in ways or holding beliefs that could potentially be termed seditious. They typically express their opinion openly, yet it is disguised. The active protesting of recent years was not always necessary to lift the veil of quiescence.
When former Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah publicly claimed that anti-India slogans were normal in Kashmir earlier this year, it came as a surprise to the rest of the country.
However, for any one growing up in Kashmir, the anti-India sentiment is a popularly acknowledged one. Kashmir is with U. This view is common and is also present among children. There are rules to hoist the flag, and students usually ignore these rules as the urge for insubordination runs deep in their minds.
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Similar incidents are noted during the singing of the Indian national anthem. One is expected to stand still in reverence while it plays. But students in schools all across the Valley find glee in fidgeting during a rendition. A few months ago, an incident at a school in Srinagar made news when a guest asked its students if India deserved a permanent seat in the United Nation.
The students disagreed, leaving him surprised and school authorities embarrassed. Similarly, Indian national holidays — Independence Day and Republic Day — are symbolically marked as black days. Both sides agree that the instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh be ratified by a referendum, to be held after hostilities have ceased.
Historians on either side of the dispute remain undecided as to whether the Maharaja signed the document after Indian troops had entered Kashmir i.
Fighting continues through the second half ofwith the regular Pakistani army called upon to protect Pakistan's borders. The war officially ends on January 1,when the United Nations arranges a ceasefire, with an established ceasefire line, a UN peacekeeping force and a recommendation that the referendum on the accession of Kashmir to India be held as agreed earlier.
That referendum has yet to be held. Pakistan controls roughly one-third of the state, referring to it as Azad free Jammu and Kashmir.
A larger area, including the former kingdoms of Hunza and Nagar, is controlled directly by the central Pakistani government. The Indian eastern side of the ceasefire line is referred to as Jammu and Kashmir. Both countries refer to the other side of the ceasefire line as "occupied" territory.
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India, from the point of the ratification and constitution, begins to refer to Jammu and Kashmir as an integral part of the Indian union. The specific contents of those talks have not yet been declassified, but no agreement was reached.
In the talks, "Pakistan signified willingness to consider approaches other than a plebiscite and India recognised that the status of Kashmir was in dispute and territorial adjustments might be necessary," according to a declassified US state department memo dated January 27, The conflict begins after a clash between border patrols in April in the Rann of Kutch in the Indian state of Gujaratbut escalates on August 5, when between 26, and 33, Pakistani soldiers cross the ceasefire line dressed as Kashmiri locals, crossing into Indian-administered Kashmir.
The largest engagement of the war takes place in the Sialkot sector, where between and tanks square off in an inconclusive battle. By September 22, both sides agree to a UN mandated ceasefire, ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate, with both sides holding some of the other's territory.
The conflict begins when the central Pakistani government in West Pakistan, led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, refuses to allow Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, a Bengali whose party won the majority of seats in the parliamentary elections, to assume the premiership.
A Pakistani military crackdown on Dhaka begins in March, but India becomes involved in the conflict in December, after the Pakistani air force launches a pre-emptive strike on airfields in India's northwest. India then launches a coordinated land, air and sea assault on East Pakistan. The Pakistani army surrenders at Dhaka, and its army of more than 90, become prisoners of war.
Hostilities lasted 13 days, making this one of the shortest wars in modern history. East Pakistan becomes the independent country of Bangladesh on December 6, Click here for more on the Kashmir conflict - Pakistani Prime Minister Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign an agreement in the Indian town of Simla, in which both countries agree to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of a durable peace in the subcontinent".
Both sides agree to settle any disputes "by peaceful means". The Simla Agreement designates the ceasefire line of December 17,as being the new "Line-of-Control LoC " between the two countries, which neither side is to seek to alter unilaterally, and which "shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side".
Pakistan rejects the accord with the Indian government. India refers to the device as a "peaceful nuclear explosive". These include "nuclear power and research reactors, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, isotopes separation and reprocessing facilities as well as any other installations with fresh or irradiated nuclear fuel and materials in any form and establishments storing significant quantities of radio-active materials".
Both sides agree to share information on the latitudes and longitudes of all nuclear installations. This agreement is later ratified, and the two countries share information on January 1 each year since then. Muslim political parties, after accusing the state government of rigging the state legislative elections, form militant wings. Pakistan says that it gives its "moral and diplomatic" support to the movement, reiterating its call for the earlier UN-sponsored referendum.
India says that Pakistan is supporting the insurgency by providing weapons and training to fighters, terming attacks against it in Kashmir "cross-border terrorism".