Plant-animal relationships - catchsomeair.us
Earthworms aerate the soil so that the roots of plants can better obtain oxygen. Relationships between animals and plants are complicated. The food chain. foragers, and their eternity gives man and animals living in the forest a sense are of vital importance, the relationships between plants, animals and man differ. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals ( including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs. [Clarification .
Plants and Animals Put to Work Plants and animals have been used by people to help with a variety of tasks for millennia.
Plants were used to create clothing, such as straw hats and woven cotton textiles. Clothing helped to shield human skin from the sun and to help regulate body temperature. Animal fur and pelts were also used to create clothing that allowed people to safely hunt, work and live outdoors, especially in colder climates. Animals played an important part in all sorts of labor-intensive tasks up until the development of advanced technology.
Horses provided fast transportation before the development of cars. They could pull trees from the ground, pull plows to till fields and carry building materials long distances, allowing people to build tougher homes and barns in a wider variety of places.
Dogs assisted people in hunting. Certain breeds were developed to hunt in different ways, from terriers that dug up rodents and other small pests from the ground to pointers that helped hunters locate birds or deer in tall brush.
In some cases, dogs could even be trained to chase, kill and retrieve animals at a hunter's command, making in unnecessary for humans to risk injury in order to obtain meat. In parts of the world where the latest technology is unavailable, animals are still used to perform tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. Plants and Animals Used as Tools Animal bone could be carved into knives, spears and other useful instruments.
Animal bladders were sometimes used to create bags, while hollowed-out horns from animals like rams could be used to transmit sounds over long distances. Wood from trees was used to build everything from the bodies of spears to hunting bows. Fifteen individuals per species were sampled from different plots within the elevational distribution range for specific leaf area SLAleaf dry matter content LDMCstem specific density SSDleaf nitrogen content leaf Nmassleaf phosphorus content leaf Pmassfruiting frequency, fruit number, and fruit size.
Additionally, the total plant biomass per plot was calculated with allometric equations using complete tree and undergrowth inventories details in [ 45 ]. Sampling and processing of plant material followed Kleyer et al.
Percentage cover values from vegetation surveys were used to calculate community-weighted mean trait values for each plot CWM, [ 47 ]. The traits used are related to the worldwide leaf economics spectrum [ 3248 ], reflecting a gradient from plants with fast resource use and nutrient turnover to those with slow and persistent growth. The former are characterized by soft tissues with high nitrogen content and are generally preferred by herbivores, due to their easier digestion and higher nutritional value [ 32 ].
All data were collected on the same plots within a common time frame to avoid confounding effects of spatial and temporal variability. To quantify nectar and fruit availability on the plots, pollination and dispersal syndromes were extracted from the Flora of Tropical East Africa [ 49 ]. Nectar availability is difficult to quantify, as nectar amounts per flower, flowering times, and the proportion of tissue invested in flowers are highly variable between species.
This resource was approximated by the abundance-weighted proportion of insect-pollinated plant species. To assess food resources for frugivorous birds, average fruit numbers per individual plant sampled in the field fnaverage fruit size fsfruiting frequency ffand relative abundance ra were used to calculate the bird-dispersed fruit CWM bdc according to the following formula: Birds were observed through point counts, both in the dry and wet season to include temporal variation see [ 50 ] for methodology.
Bees were sampled with pan traps on the forest floor and in the canopy of woody vegetation.
Importance of Plants & Animals in Human Life | Sciencing
Sampling was repeated several times to account for temporal variation see [ 44 ]. Moths were caught with an automatic light trap with a superactinic light tube 6 watt, Fritz Weber Entomologiebedarf, Stuttgart, Germany as light source.
This was repeated in dry and wet seasons. Body mass of birds was derived from Dunning Jr [ 51 ] and used as a proxy for body size [ 52 ].How Do Plants & Animals Depend on Each Other?
Within animal groups of similar body structure, body length and size are highly correlated [ 53 ]. For bees, body size was approximated by the highly correlated intertegular distance ITD, [ 54 ]. Moth body length was measured using a binocular Leica stereomicroscope with a calibrated ocular micrometer.
As with plant traits, animal body size was weighted by species abundance, yielding a body size CWM for each taxon or guild, to avoid giving rare species the same weighting as abundant ones [ 21 ].
A permanent change in the ecosystem could cause an organism to become an endangered species. Human needs and the environment The environment is impacted by humans. When human needs impact the environment, the result can be beneficial or detrimental. Humans use parts of other organisms for food and clothing. Some animals are used as pets for humans for enjoyment or protection. Animals can be used for asistance when compensating for disabilities and to perform work or provide recreation.
Humans can control and alter the environment.
Farming by humans increases the amount of food by encouraging plants to grow by cultivation. Humans can also control the environment to compensate for disabilities. Humans can permanently damage the environment.