BBC - History - King Charles I
THE RELATIOnS OF CHARLE::S I AIID PARLIAMENT, by . Charles I of England remains a tragic figure in history, for his total reign was one of. Although Charles had promised Parliament in that there would be no advantages for recusants (people refusing to attend Church of England services), . 6 days ago James I, who began the antagonistic relationship with Parliament during his reign. Charles I. king of Great Britain and Ireland. Written By.
Charles's allies in the House of Lords, led by the Duke of Buckingham, refused to pass the bill. Although no Parliamentary authority for the levy of tonnage and poundage could be obtained, Charles continued to collect the duties anyway. Tyranny or Personal Rule? In January Charles opened the second session of the Parliament which had been prorogued in June Rolle was an MP who had his goods confiscated for not paying tonnage and poundage.
This was seen by many MPs as a breach of the Petition of Right, who argued that the freedom from arrest privilege extended to goods. When he requested a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker, John Finch, down in his chair while three resolutions against Charles were read aloud.
The last of these resolutions declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorized by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same. The fact that a number of MPs had to be detained in Parliament is relevant in understanding that there was no universal opposition toward the king.
Afterward, when the Commons passed further measures displeasing to Charles, he dissolved parliament. Charles resolved not to be forced to rely on Parliament for further monetary aid.
Immediately, he made peace with France and Spain. Charles's rule without Parliament constituted a valid but nevertheless exceptional exercise of the royal prerogative.
In former times such rule would have been considered just but by the middle of the seventeenth century it was held by many to be an exercise of absolute power. This oil painting, done aroundwas created so that the Italian sculptor, Bernini, could create a marble bust of Charles. Even without Parliament Charles still had to acquire funds in order to maintain his treasury. He also reintroduced the obsolete feudal tax known as ship money which was even more unpopular.
A writ issued in ordered the collection of ship money in peacetime, notwithstanding statutes of Edward I and Edward III that had prohibited the levying of such a tax except during wars. This first writ ofhowever, did not encourage much opposition on legal grounds, but a second writ of did. Charles's third writ demanding ship money, issued inmade it clear that the ancient prohibition on collecting ship money during peacetime had been swept away.
Many attempted to resist payment, but Charles's judges, whose tenure depended on his "good pleasure," declared that the tax was within the king's prerogative. This action of demanding ship money to be raised in peacetime was a major cause of concern among the ruling class; however, it must be noted that it was the attempted enforcement of the Anglican and increasingly Arminian styled prayer book under Laud that precipitated the rebellion in Scotland, which ended Personal Rule in This goal was shared by his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud.
Laud was appointed by Charles as the Archbishop of Canterbury in and started a series of unpopular reforms in the Church to make it more ceremonial.
Charles I | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts | catchsomeair.us
Laud attempted to ensure religious uniformity by dismissing non-conformist clergymen and closing Puritan organizations. His policy was obnoxious to Calvinist theology, and insisted that the Church of England's liturgy be celebrated with all of the ceremony and vestments called for by the Book of Common Prayer.
Laud was also an advocate of Arminian theology, a view in which emphasis on the ability to reject salvation was viewed as heretical and virtually "Catholic" by strict Calvinists. To punish those who refused to accept his reforms, Laud used the two most feared and arbitrary courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber.
Charles I of England
The former could compel individuals to provide self-incriminating testimony, while the latter could inflict any punishment whatsoever including torturewith the sole exception of death. The lawlessness of the Court of Star Chamber under Charles I far exceeded that under any of his predecessors.
Under Charles's reign, defendants were regularly hauled before the court without indictment, due process of the law, or the right to confront witnesses, and their testimonies were routinely extracted by the king and his courtiers through extensive torture. The first years of the Personal Rule were marked by peace in England, to some extent due to tighter central control.
Several individuals opposed Charles's taxes and Laud's policies, but the overall trend of the early Personal Rule period is one of peace. When, however, Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland, he faced numerous difficulties.
The king ordered the use of a new Prayer Book modeled on the English Book of Common Prayerwhich, although supported by the Scottish Bishops, was resisted by many Presbyterian Scots, who saw the new Prayer Book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland. When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland abolished Episcopalian government that is, governance of the Church by Bishops inreplacing it with Presbyterian government that is, governance by Elders and DeaconsCharles sought to put down what he saw as a rebellion against his authority.
Inwhen the First Bishops' War broke out, Charles sought to collect taxes from his subjects, who refused to yield any further.
Charles's war ended in a humiliating truce in June of the same year. In the Pacification of Berwick, Charles agreed to grant his Scottish subjects civil and ecclesiastical freedoms. Charles's military failure in the First Bishops' War in turn caused a financial and military crisis for Charles, leading to the end of Personal Rule.
Due to his financial weakness, Charles was forced to call Parliament into session by in an attempt to raise funds. While the ruling class grievances with the changes to government and finance during the Personal Rule period were a contributing factor in the Scottish Rebellion, it was mainly due to the key issue of religion that Charles was forced to confront the ruling class in Parliament for the first time in 11 years.
In essence, it was Charles's and Laud's confrontational religious modifications that ended what the Whig historians refer to as "The Eleven Years of Tyranny.
To subdue the Scots, Charles needed more money; therefore, he took the fateful step of recalling Parliament in April Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, and the House of Commons agreed to allow Charles to raise the funds for war, an impasse was reached when Parliament demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the Personal Rule. As both sides refused to give ground on this matter, Parliament was dissolved in Mayless than a month after it assembled. Thus, the Parliament became known as the "Short Parliament.
The humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed after the end of the Second Bishops' War in Octoberrequired the king to pay the expenses of the Scottish army he had just fought.
Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium, the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the king's hereditary counselors.
Charles I (1600 - 1649)
The magnum concilium had not been summoned for centuries. Although the members of the House of Commons thought of themselves as conservatives defending the king, Church, and Parliamentary government against innovations in religion and the tyranny of Charles's advisors, Charles viewed many of them as dangerous rebels trying to undermine his rule. To prevent the king from dissolving it at will, Parliament passed the Triennial Act, to which the Royal Assent was granted in February The Act required that Parliament was to be summoned at least once every three years, and that if the king failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own.
In May, he assented to an even more far-reaching act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent. Charles was forced into one concession after another.
He agreed to bills of attainder authorizing the executions of Thomas Wentworth and William Laud. Ship money, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans were declared unlawful, and the hated Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished.
Although he made several important concessions, Charles improved his own military position by securing the favor of the Scots.
He finally agreed to the official establishment of Presbyterianism; in return, he was able to enlist considerable anti-parliamentary support. Henrietta Maria by Sir Anthony van Dyck In November the House of Commons passed the Grand Remonstrance, denouncing all the abuses of power Charles had committed since the beginning of his reign.
The tension was heightened when the Irish rebelled against Protestant English rule and rumors of Charles's complicity reached Parliament. An army was required to put down the rebellion but many members of the House of Commons feared that Charles might later use it against Parliament itself. The Militia Bill was intended to wrest control of the army from the king, but Charles refused to agree to it.
However, Parliament decreed the Protestation as an attempt to lessen the conflict. When rumors reached Charles that Parliament intended to impeach his Catholic Queen, Henrietta Maria, he took drastic action. His wife persuaded him to arrest the five members of the House of Commons who led the anti-Stuart faction on charges of high treason, but, when the king had made his decision, she made the mistake of informing a friend who in turn alerted Parliament. Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed force on January 4,but found that his opponents had already escaped, he inquired to the Speaker, William Lenthall, as to their whereabouts, to which Lenthall famously replied: Many in Parliament thought Charles's actions outrageous as did the corporation and City of London which moved firmly behind Parliament.
Charles no longer felt safe in London and he went north to raise an army against Parliament. The Queen, at the same time, went abroad to raise money to pay for it. After futile negotiations, Charles raised the royal standard an anachronistic medieval gesture in Nottingham on August 22, He then set up his court at Oxford, whence his government controlled roughly the north and west of England, with Parliament remaining in control of London and the south and east.
Charles raised an army using the archaic method of the Commission of Array. The Civil War started on October 25, with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through anduntil the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favor of Parliament.
There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, England, and was taken to nearby Southwell, Nottinghamshire while his "hosts" decided what to do with him.
The army, though, was dominated by more radical views, in religion and politics. Gaining the upper hand init removed the Presbyterians from Parliament. The purged Parliament put the king on trial and executed him in It instituted a new regime, a republic.
After his death inthe army divided and disintegrated. But some things had changed. Religionhowever, continued to be a dominant political issue.
The Church of England, with its bishops and cathedrals, all abolished during the Civil War, was reconstructed after the Restoration.
Public worship by the other religious groups which had mushroomed during the Civil War and Interregnum, such as Quakers and Baptists, was outlawed.
Many Presbyterians, too, felt that they could not be part of the re-established Church. The most explosive issue, though, was the desire of both Charles II and James II to enable Catholics to worship freely, without the restrictions which had been introduced in the sixteenth century. Blocked from doing so by Parliament, they both tried to find ways of changing the law using the royal prerogative. When Parliament passed the Test Act inremoving Catholics from public office, the resignation of James, then heir to the throne, showed that he had converted to Catholicism himself.
AfterParliament was dominated by two preoccupations. One was the perennial one of financing the now very rapidly rising costs of government. William had invaded England in order to ensure it would be a Dutch ally in his impending war against France, and the costly war ofand its successor in forced a revolution in British state finance, a rapid growth in state institutions, the army, navy and civil service.
Resisting the growth of the state and ensuring the proper oversight of all of this activity became major parliamentary preoccupations. The other preoccupation was the party battle.