### Fat and Calories

Increases in portion size have occurred in parallel with the rise in the prevalence of the relationship between the portion size of foods and weight status; Energy density (kilojoules per gram; kilocalories per gram) has been. On the other hand, a serving size is a specific and measureable amount of. tells how many servings are in each package, as well as the calories, protein, fat, . Sometimes the portion size and serving size are the same, but sometimes they are not. chips and other appetizers that add extra calories, sodium and fat but lack how much to serve and easier to teach kids the difference between the two .

As subjects increased their snack intake with increasing package size, they also reported feeling fuller; however, they did not adjust their intake at the subsequent dinner meal to compensate for the increased energy intake and fullness.

To investigate whether portion size has an impact on intake beyond a single eating occasion, Rolls et al 20 conducted a study in which they increased the portion size of all foods served at meals and snacks over 2 d.

It was again found that increasing portion sizes led to significantly increased energy intake. Although subjects reported feeling more full after they consumed the larger portions, they did not compensate for the excess energy eaten over the course of the first day by reducing their intake on the second day. These data demonstrate that the effects of portion size can persist over several days, resulting in substantial increases in food and energy intake.

Future studies are needed to determine whether these effects continue over the long term and have an effect on body weight. The experimental evidence demonstrates that portion size has a significant effect on food intake in adults in the short term.

Increases in intake were observed in both men and women across a range of ages, body weights, and psychological factors, such as scores for dietary restraint and depression. It is not clear why individuals consistently increased their intake as portion size increased. In the single-meal studies 1617it appeared that subjects were unaware of their extra intake, in that they did not report feeling fuller after eating significantly more food.

In the studies that included multiple meals 1617subjects reported that they felt fuller, yet they did not respond by eating less within the meal or at subsequent meals.

This suggests that adults ignore or override hunger and satiety signals when presented with large portions of food. It is possible that individuals learn to eat in the absence of hunger as young children and continue with this eating behavior into adulthood 10 Further insight into adult eating behavior is provided by recent survey data from the American Institute of Cancer Research This suggests that, when eating out, many adults ignore satiety signals and eat beyond the point of noticeable fullness.

The portion sizes that individuals customarily eat may be related to frequent exposure to large portions over time. Clearly, future studies are needed to determine the reasons that individuals fail to rely on satiety cues and instead respond to external cues in the eating environment, such as portion size. For consumers, one obvious approach is education about appropriate portion sizes. Previous efforts in training individuals to estimate portions of foods have not been notably successful, however, and much work remains to be done in both research and practice in this area An approach that helps consumers resist the influence of large portions and lose weight is the use of commercially packaged meals that are controlled for portion size and energy content 24 — Another possible strategy could be to train adults to recognize and respond to their physiologic cues related to satiety, as has been done with children Instructional Implications Review the concept of ratio and encourage the student to use a ratio table to write and explore patterns in equivalent ratios.

Guide the student to use multiplication rather than repeated addition to generate equivalent ratios. Point out that associated values in the table are related by a constant ratio and define this ratio as the constant of proportionality. Give the student additional ratio tables and ask him or her to calculate the constant of proportionality. Guide the student to use the constant of proportionality to write an equation that models the relationship between variables that are proportionally related.

Make explicit what the variables represent and how the constant of proportionality relates associated values of the two variables. Provide the student with tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions of proportionally related variables and ask the student to identify the constant of proportionality and use it to write an equation that models the relationship.

## Larger Serving Sizes On Food Labels May Encourage Us to Eat Less

Moving Forward The student can find the constant of proportionality but is unable to write the equation. Examples of Student Work at this Level The student divides by 40 to find the constant of proportionality but does not understand how to use it to write an equation that models the relationship between the number of calories and the serving size in grams.

Did you write an equation? Is four calories per gram an equation?

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What two variables should the equation relate? I see you found the constant of proportionality. Do you know how to use it to write an equation?

### Just Enough for You: About Food Portions | NIDDK

Instructional Implications Guide the student to use the constant of proportionality to write an equation that models the relationship between variables that are proportionally related. Provide the student with tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions of proportionally related variables, and ask the student to identify the constant of proportionality and use it to write an equation that models the relationship.

Almost There The student writes a correct equation but is unable to define the variables. Questions Eliciting Thinking What does the four in your equation mean or represent?

What does the x in your equation represent? What does the y in your equation represent? How could one use this equation?