Stoichiometry and Balancing Reactions - Chemistry LibreTexts
Mar 13, Chemical reactions are complex processes that involve chaotic collisions of molecules where bonds between atoms are broken and reformed. In a chemical reaction, substances (elements and/or compounds) called reactants are changed into other substances (compounds and/or elements) called. Jun 30, Stoichiometry is a section of chemistry that involves using relationships between reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction to determine.
Natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, landslides, earthquakes, and typhoons are a result of a series of chemical reactions that transform one element to another. Even the human body has chemical reactions within its organ systems that enables us to survive. Imbalances to these reactions can result in human illnesses.
Chemical reactions take place because of chemical substances that are grouped into reactants and products.
Difference Between Reactants and Products
This article is written to explore the differences regarding these two substances. Chemical Reactants Chemical reactants are chemical substances that combine in order to form another compound.
For example, water is made up of chemical elements such as hydrogen and oxygen. Another example is salt, which is made up of a combination of the chemical elements, sodium and chloride. These singular elements combine, or undergo a chemical reaction to form new chemical compounds. Aside from chemical elements, reactants may also involve more complex substances, such as compounds.
For example, baking soda is composed of several elements namely, sodium, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. It is formed by a chemical reaction between sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Sodium hydroxide is a combination of sodium, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbon dioxide is a combination of carbon and two molecules of oxygen. When these chemical reactants combine, it results in the formation of sodium bicarbonate, or what is commonly known as baking soda.
Chemists have a distinct way of writing these reactions in a chemical equation.
Chemical equations are written in such a way that an arrow is directed to the final product of the chemical reaction. These equations also involve the use of other substances that were involved in the reaction. Combination is the addition of 2 or more simple reactants to form a complex product. Decomposition is when complex reactants are broken down into simpler products. Single displacement is when an element from on reactant switches with an element of the other to form two new reactants.
Double displacement is when two elements from on reactants switched with two elements of the other to form two new reactants. Acid- base reactions are when two reactants form salts and water.
Molar Mass Before applying stoichiometric factors to chemical equations, you need to understand molar mass. Molar mass is a useful chemical ratio between mass and moles. The atomic mass of each individual element as listed in the periodic table established this relationship for atoms or ions.
Difference Between Reactants and Products | Difference Between | Reactants vs Products
Since there is a ratio of 4: Variation in Stoichiometric Equations Almost every quantitative relationship can be converted into a ratio that can be useful in data analysis. This ratio can be useful in determining the volume of a solution, given the mass or useful in finding the mass given the volume. In the latter case, the inverse relationship would be used.
A percent mass states how many grams of a mixture are of a certain element or molecule. This is useful in determining mass of a desired substance in a molecule.
If the total mass of the substance is 10 grams, what is the mass of carbon in the sample? General Guidelines for Balancing Simple Equations Assign a "1" as the coefficient for the most complex species the one whose chemical formula has the greatest number of different elements.
Balance any single-element species last.
Eliminate fractional coefficients although this is not necessary. Add coefficients only; do not change the chemical formulas. There must be the same number of atoms on the left and right sides of the chemical reaction. These are just guidelines, not rules. Therefore, sometimes it may be necessary to deviate from these general guidelines.
Balance the chemical reaction. This equation is not balanced since there are more N and O atoms on the left side of the equation.
- Chemical Reactions
- The materials involved in a chemical reaction.
Let's start by using the guidelines. Assign a stoichiometric coefficient of 1 to the most complex compound, NO. Now we can balance the remaining single-element compounds. In order to do this we will need to use fractional coefficients. Typically a stoichiometric coefficient of "1" is not explicitly included when writing the chemical equation. We can get rid of the fractional coefficients by multiplying by 2 even though this is a perfectly acceptable balanced chemical equation.
Balanced, but without fractional coefficients At the very beginning of this problem, perhaps you could see this was the answer.
Stoichiometry and Balancing Reactions
If you can see the balanced equation by sight, you don't need to go by the guidelines. Remember they are only guidelines to help if you run into trouble.
You can see by simply adding a 2 in front of NO, we violate the first guideline even though it leads us to a balanced equation.