Sociology in Public Health | catchsomeair.us
Within the subfield of the sociology of health and illness, mental health is a psychological abnormality in its social context by emphasising historical analysis . a broader sociology of health, illness, healing and medicine, which describes the MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOCIOLOGY ology as offering insight into the historical and social connections between personal. The relationship between education and health comprises important portions of the sociological, social science, and public health.
Sociology assumes that social structure and social processes are very complex. Therefore its methodology is appropriately complex and often, particularly in American sociology, dominated by multivariate statistical methods of analysis. The advent of the computer in the second half of the twentieth century presented the field with the opportunity to work with very large bodies of data and complex variables.
Early debates in medical sociology were concerned with the role of sociology as it relates to medicine: Should the field be critical and analytical, concerning itself with the sociology of medicine i.
Like many such formative debates, there could be no conclusive answer.
Sociology and psychology in public health - Oxford Medicine
However, the field has developed into two groups: Later debates related to whether the focus should be on health sociology or medical sociology. This debate has moved the field to a broader, more ecological, view of medicine and health. It is also characterized by a population-based approach to health, and statistical methods are deemed the appropriate underlying method for the field.
It is viewed as a science that seeks to intervene, control, and prevent large-scale processes that negatively affect the public's health. By these criteria, there is a strong logical fit of sociological principles and practices within public health. Nonetheless, sociology has not been the key social science discipline in public health.
That position has gone to psychology, where the emphasis on individual behavior resonates more with a biomedical model. Despite this, many of the primary concerns of present-day public health, with large-scale variables such as social capital, social inequality, social status, and health care organization and financing, remain topics best suited to the sociological perspective and methodology.
The emphasis in public health is thus shifting toward a sociological perspective. More than any other social sciencesociology has the discussion of socioeconomic status at its very core. Social-class variation within society is the key explanatory variable in sociology—for everything from variation in social structure to differential life experiences of health and illness.
Sociology of health and illness
Indeed, there appears to be overwhelming evidence that Western industrialized societies that have little variation in social class experience have far better health outcomes than societies characterized by wide social-class dispersion. In short, inequalities in health are directly related to social and economic inequalities. If education is causally related to health, what are the key mechanisms by which it does so? This article touches on the classic works, key scientific resources, important descriptive papers, and central debates that characterize this area of study.
Classic Works and General Overviews The single most important classic work of scholarship in the area of education and health is Kitagawa and Hauser The authors amassed a data set based on US vital statistics and census records to document mortality differentials by educational attainment for women and men, for younger and older adults, and for the white and non-white populations. Their classic work served to greatly heighten awareness that educational attainment was related to major disparities in mortality rates and continues to be a takeoff point for many studies in the area.
Recent works, such as Cutler and Lleras-MuneyRoss and Mirowskyand Hummer and Lariscymost effectively serve to update scholarship in this area. No single theoretical perspective or empirical tradition dominates the education—health literature.
Mirowsky and Ross specifically emphasizes the human capital benefits that individuals develop with higher levels of education.
They argue that higher levels of schooling provide individuals with the skills and resources that, far beyond the increased income associated with higher education, are necessary to live healthier and longer lives.
The education effect on population health: Population and Development Review Evaluating theories and evidence. In Making Americans healthier: Social and economic policy as health policy. Edited by Robert F. Kaplan, and Harold Pollack, 29— They document current US educational differences in health behaviors, health, and mortality. Cultural beliefs shape attitudes towards physical and mental disabilities. China exemplifies this problem. According to Chinese Confucian tradition which is also applicable in other countries where Confucianism has been spreadpeople should always pursue good health in their lives, with an emphasis on health promotion and disease prevention.
Many traditional healing practices include shamanism and herbal medicinesand may have been passed down orally in small groups or even institutionalized and professionalized. Now governments must be careful to create health policies that strike a balance between modernity and tradition. Organizations, like the World Health Organizationtry to create policies that respect tradition without trying to replace it with modern science, instead regulating it to ensure safety but keeping it accessible.
Indigenous psychology is that which is derived from the laws, theories, principals, and ideas of a culture and unique to each society. For example, in Pakistandecisions concerning pregnancy and antenatal care ANC are usually made by older women, often the pregnant woman's mother-in-law, while the mother and father to be are distanced from the process.
They may or may not receive professional ANC depending on their education, class, and financial situation.
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Female midwives and healers are still the norm in most places. Western methods are overtaking the traditional in an attempt to improve maternal health and increase the number of live births. Even wealthy Asian nations, such as Japan, Singaporeand Taiwanalso have very elderly populations and thus have to try to sustain their economies and society with small younger generations while caring for their elderly citizens.
While indigenous medicinal beliefs are not significantly prevalent in Australia, traditional ideas are still influential in the health care problems in many of the islands of the Pacific. Because of this, public health was professionalized beginning in the late s in an effort to control these and other diseases.
Since then Australia's health system has evolved similarly to Western countries and the main cultural influence affecting health care are the political ideologies of the parties in control of the government. In the s and s it was recognized that Australia had several hundred thousand alcoholics and prevention became a priority over cures, as there was a societal consensus that treatments are generally ineffective. The government has also waged a war on illegal drugs, particularly heroinwhich in the s became widely used as a pain reliever.
European colonization and late independence meant modernization but also slow economic growth, which had an enormous effect on health care, particularly on nutrition in the Pacific Islands. The end of colonization meant a loss of medical resources, and the fledgling independent governments could not afford to continue the health policies put in place by the colonial governments. While more prosperous, urban areas could afford food, they chose poor diets, causing 'overnourishment', and leading to extremely high levels of obesitytype 2 diabetesand cardiovascular diseases.
Education and Health - Sociology - Oxford Bibliographies
Poorer rural communities, on the other hand, continue to suffer from malnutrition and malaria. Native attitudes towards weight contribute to the obesity problem. Tongan natives see obesity as a positive thing, especially in men.
They also believe that women should do as little physical work as possible while the men provide for them, meaning they get very little exercise. It is as low as 67 in Russia and 73 in the Balkan states. The study of hypertension within the United Kingdom has turned to examining the role that beliefs play in its diagnosis and treatment.
Hypertension is an essential topic for study since it is linked to increased risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. The most common treatment for hypertension is medication but compliance for this treatment plan is low. There were differing reasons for non-compliance that involve the patients' perception and beliefs about the diagnosis. Patients commonly believe that high levels of anxiety when first diagnosed are the major cause and think that when stress levels decline so too will their hypertension.
Other respondents in this UK based study had varying beliefs concerning the necessity of medication while others still argued that it was the side effects of medication that made them end their prescribed regimen. What can be seen here is that some people will choose to ignore a doctor's expert advice and will employ 'lay consultation' instead. These common illness were examined not because of their seriousness but because of their frequency.
The researchers explain five possible triggers that people seek medical aid: These kind of explanatory models are part of the process that people use to construct medical culture.
It can help explore why some patients will follow a doctors instructions to the letter and others ignore them completely. A patient's explanation or understanding of their illness can be much broader than a physician's and this dynamic has become a major criticism of modern medical practice since it normally excludes the "social, psychological and experiential dimensions of illness. Half of the respondents did not have any lay consultation before coming to the doctors office.
One-third did not try any self-treatment and three-quarters of the sample consulted the doctor within three days of symptoms developing.
These results echo similar studies in Ireland that explain this phenomenon as being based in a strong work ethic. Illness in these countries will affect their work and Finnish people will quickly get treatment so they can return to work. This research out of Finland also describes that this relationship between patient and doctor is based on: On one hand many patients believe they are the expert of their own body and view the Doctor-patient relationship as authoritarian.
These people will often use knowledge outside the medical field to deal with health and illness. Others see the doctor as the expert and are shy about describing their symptoms and therefore rely on the doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
Data was collected between and