Economic development - Wikipedia
The National Development Council reported a birth rate in , “Overall productivity tends to decline as a population ages,” says Ma. The National Development Council meeting marked the end of the in particular the creation of sustainable jobs for its growing population, the. National Development Council, “Population Projections for R.O.C. (Taiwan): of Population by the Major Three Age Groups, Dependency Ratio and Ageing.
A core topic has been fertility transition: The transition, linked to socioeconomic development and improvements in health and longevity, is of major interest to social scientists. Moreover, it is still underway in many countries, and in a few has barely begun. The future pace of fertility decline in these countries has large implications for the ultimate peak size of the human population and its well-being.
Population and Public Policy: This collection of essays on population and public policy marks the occasion and celebrates his scholarly career. The opening essays in this supplement to Population and Development Review cover population renewal in affluent societies, the management of intergenerational relations throughout history, and the sustainability issues confronting the modern welfare state.
Another set of contributions is concerned with the historical experience with low fertility; the puzzles that ultra-low fertility and natural population decrease pose for theorists of human behavior; the relationship between fertility decline and democratization; and the intractable problems for social policy in Japan created by ultra-low fertility and extreme population aging. Several essays examine the role of public policy in lowering high fertility; others offer novel insights on natural and human capital and technology.
A final group of essays concerns theory and data: Transition has major implications for family and kinship patterns, urbanization, public finance and the welfare state, and intergenerational relations.
The chapters in this supplement explore aspects of the transitional and post-transition landscape from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.
They cover both modern industrial societies and emerging economies, and take note of the circumstances of latecomers to the transition process. Bloom, Wolfgang Lutz eds. Download PDF The essays assembled in this supplement to Population and Development Review address the history of national and international political responses to high fertility and rapid population growth; the demographic dimensions of economic globalization and international factor mobility; policy implications of population-linked changes in the natural and built environment; and problems of managing international migration.
Demographic and Economic Perspectives Linda J. Download PDF In this supplement to Population and Development Review, distinguished social scientists bring a variety of disciplinary perspectives—economic, demographic, epidemiological—to bear on the subject of population aging, looking particularly to likely future trends and their economic consequences.
Among the questions investigated: What can be said about the future course of longevity, given that research on both historical and contemporary populations belies the existence of a biologically fixed maximum for the human life span? How can we unravel the strong positive association between socioeconomic status and health?
What are the effects of increased longevity on the viability of publicly financed retirement and disability programs—and can we assign probabilities to such increases?
The data drawn on come largely from elaborate longitudinal surveys such as the US Health and Retirement Study, the importance of which is thus underlined. For the first time in history humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these people I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better life… What we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing Greater production is the key to prosperity and peace.
And the key to greater production is a wider and more vigorous application of modem scientific and technical knowledge. From the s to the s the state played a large role in promoting industrialization in developing countries, following the idea of modernization theory.
This period was followed by a brief period of basic needs development focusing on human capital development and redistribution in the s. Neoliberalism emerged in the s pushing an agenda of free trade and removal of import substitution industrialization policies. In economics, the study of economic development was borne out of an extension to traditional economics that focused entirely on national productor the aggregate output of goods and services.
Economic development was concerned with the expansion of people's entitlements and their corresponding capabilities, morbiditynourishmentliteracyeducationand other socio-economic indicators.
Hirschmana major contributor to development economicsasserted that economic development grew to concentrate on the poor regions of the worldprimarily in AfricaAsia and Latin America yet on the outpouring of fundamental ideas and models. Growth and development[ edit ] Economic growth deals with increase in the level of output, but economic development is related to increase in output coupled with improvement in social and political welfare of people within a country.
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Therefore, economic development encompasses both growth and welfare values. Dependency theorists argue that poor countries have sometimes experienced economic growth with little or no economic development initiatives; for instance, in cases where they have functioned mainly as resource-providers to wealthy industrialized countries. There is an opposing argument, however, that growth causes development because some of the increase in income gets spent on human development such as education and health.
According to Ranis et al.
According to them, the first chain consists of economic growth benefiting human development, since economic growth is likely to lead families and individuals to use their heightened incomes to increase expenditures, which in turn furthers human development. At the same time, with the increased consumption and spending, health, education, and infrastructure systems grow and contribute to economic growth. In addition to increasing private incomes, economic growth also generates additional resources that can be used to improve social services such as healthcaresafe drinking wateretc.
By generating additional resources for social services, unequal income distribution will be mitigated as such social services are distributed equally across each communitythereby benefiting each individual. Concisely, the relationship between human development and economic development can be explained in three ways.
First, increase in average income leads to improvement in health and nutrition known as Capability Expansion through Economic Growth.
Second, it is believed that social outcomes can only be improved by reducing income poverty known as Capability Expansion through Poverty Reduction.
Lastly, social outcomes can also be improved with essential services such as educationhealthcareand clean drinking water known as Capability Expansion through Social Services. John Joseph Puthenkalam's research aims at the process of economic growth theories that lead to economic development.
After analyzing the existing capitalistic growth-development theoretical apparatus, he introduces the new model which integrates the variables of freedom, democracy and human rights into the existing models and argue that any future economic growth-development of any nation depends on this emerging model as we witness the third wave of unfolding demand for democracy in the Middle East.
He develops the knowledge sector in growth theories with two new concepts of 'micro knowledge' and 'macro knowledge'. Micro knowledge is what an individual learns from school or from various existing knowledge and macro knowledge is the core philosophical thinking of a nation that all individuals inherently receive.
How to combine both these knowledge would determine further growth that leads to economic development of developing nations. Yet others believe that a number of basic building blocks need to be in place for growth and development to take place.
For instance, some economists believe that a fundamental first step toward development and growth is to address property rights issues, otherwise only a small part of the economic sector will be able to participate in growth. That is, without inclusive property rights in the equation, the informal sector will remain outside the mainstream economy, excluded and without the same opportunities for study. The economic development of countries can also be implicated or contributed by the multinational corporations companies.
Economic development goals[ edit ] The development of a country has been associated with different concepts but generally encompasses economic growth through higher productivity,  political systems that represent as accurately as possible the preferences of its citizens,   the extension of rights to all social groups and the opportunities to get them  and the proper functionality of institutions and organizations that are able to attend more technically and logistically complex tasks i.
National Development Council Session
With this in mind, economic development is typically associated with improvements in a variety of areas or indicators such as literacy rateslife expectancyand poverty ratesthat may be causes of economic development rather than consequences of specific economic development programs. For example, health and education improvements have been closely related to economic growth, but the causality with economic development may not be obvious.
In any case, it is important to not expect that particular economic development programs be able to fix many problems at once as that would be establishing unsurmountable goals for them that are highly unlikely they can achieve. For example, if a nation has little capacity to carry out basic functions like security and policing or core service delivery it is unlikely that a program that wants to foster a free-trade zone special economic zones or distribute vaccinations to vulnerable populations can accomplish their goals.
Governments that can raise a significant amount of revenue from this source are less accountable to their citizens they are more autonomous as they have less pressure to legitimately use those resources. Economic development policies[ edit ] In its broadest sense, policies of economic development encompass three major areas: Governments undertaking to meet broad economic objectives such as price stability, high employmentand sustainable growth.
Such efforts include monetary and fiscal policies, regulation of financial institutionstradeand tax policies.