Monarchs, Nobles & the Church by Tim Endicott on Prezi
Underlying the conflicts within the feudal nobility which Shakespear depicted in his two tered the relationships between the monarchy, the aristocracy, and t. Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and Common titles for European and Near Eastern monarchs .. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate relationship (meaning . The distinction between the ranks of the major nobility (listed above) and the minor. Unit 8: HMA Monarchs, Nobles & the Church three major groups in power. Monarchs Nobles Church (Kings & Queens) (Lords, Counts, etc).
They tell us that all Kings are bad; that God never made a King; and that all Kings are very expensive. But, that all Kings are bad cannot be true: Jacques Benigne Bossueta well-known French Bishop and author, believed and espoused the concept of monarchy as a God given and a divine to benefit man. He quoted Ecclesiastics By me [that is, by God] princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: Because God honors them.
Chazal's [or authoritative opinion of the Talmud is the] view that kingship over Israel is a Biblical requirement. And when Saul was made king at that time and given the charge to be the right kind of king, which he sincerely wanted to be, said in the presence of the prophet and the people, ". Or as John Calvin once stated, ". A Limited Monarchy was Instituted in Ancient Israel Even though God created kings, it was to be limited or controlled by a rule of law, which included the power of the High Priest or Levitical Priesthood, the influence of the Prophets and the vote of the king's council.
In other words, it was a rule that had checks and balances. It was designed to have important safeguards. Note the following commandment: And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites: And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left.
Deuteronomy 17 In the Mishnah, we find Rabbi Simeon writing about things considered sacred to the Jews. The crown of Torah, the crown of priesthood, and the crown of royalty. The kings were to be followers of righteousness in their hearts or to the core of their being. Hence, the God of heaven made this extremely important obligation. His creation was not the right of an unlimited scepter of absolute power.
Such was never at any time authorized in this divine institution of monarchy. In the community of Qumran about B. He had to consult the council on everything.
He could not declare war without its consent. Ancient Records and Modern Perspectives, p. He explained that Moses prophecied, ". All of these things were to protect the people from abuse and ensure the best good and interests of society. It is doubtful that this order was followed, but it could have spared the people great difficulties and problems. It was a divinely approved system.
However, and this is a major point, if democracy were indeed the best form of government as some suggest, was it not strange that the God of all the universe failed to discover it or share this so-called shining truth?
In Biblical history there is no mention of it. But monarchy limited by an aristocracy and the consent of the people is mentioned. This mix of monarchy, aristocracy and representational government is considered to be the best that ever was or ever could be for mankind.
Adam Clarke -a widely respected and well known Biblical scholar, took forty years to create his exhaustive commentary. On the Samuel and kingship in Israel, he wrote that the children of Israel wanted an absolute king like the nations around them, but God in his wisdom gave them a the best kind of monarchy a monarchy that was supposed to be limited. Adam Clarke explained that the kingly government of God is "where the king, the nobles, and the people, are duly mixed, each having his proper part in the government, and each preventing the other from running to excess, and all limited by law.
Checks and Balances" Adam Clarke elaborated: That the three grand forms of government which have obtained among mankind, viz. That, from a proper mixture of these, the advantages of the whole may be reaped without any of their attendant evils.
In other words, if set up right, this kind of government works extremely well. It is also interesting that this type of government was considered the best that has ever existed by the wisest men who ever lived. They believed in it and taught it to others.
A combination of the best that man has ever devised to promote freedom and prosperity" But before they ever lived and proclaimed this, it was what God wanted for ancient Israel. Adam Clarke concluded that this form of limited monarchy or ".
The Old Testament Describes an Unending Dynasty Bishop Bossuet noted the special promises given to David and the royal dynasty God created for Israel anciently in his writings about divine rights. Elaborating on this important enterprise, we find in Psalms that it declares: Many have thought that since David's descendants became unrighteous that the promise was modified or even canceled out. However, David stated that "Although my house be not so with God [that is, 'just, ruling in the fear of God']; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure.
In fact, so sure are these promises--that of royal kingship over the descendants of Jacob that the Lord, himself said, ". My covenant shall stand fast with him. His seed also will I make to endure for evermore, and his throne as the days of heaven. Nevertheless [in] my lovingkindness will I not. My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips. It shall be established for ever as the moon, and [as] a faithful witness in heaven.
Two lines of kings apparently spring up from the royal heritage of David. One has intermarried or mixed itself with all the royal families of Europe and the other is represented by the royal and imperial house of Ethiopia. In addition, Daniel, the prophet, while interpreting a dream the heavens gave to Nebuchadnezzar, said, "Thou, O king, art a king of kings: And say unto them, Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel; Behold I will send and take Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will set his throne upon these stones that I have hid; and he shall spread his royal pavilion over them.
Thou, O king, art a king of kings: And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold. As a further evidence of God appointing kings, Elijah, as God's mouthpiece by divine appointment, anointed Hazael, a non-Israelite, king of Syria despite the fact that he saw in vision that he would be evil and he wept over what he saw, and Hazael remonstrated saying that he was not a dog that he would do such atrocities.
Paul wrote concerning Pharaoh, which by interpretation means king of the royal blood. He wrote the following of the Pharaoh of Egypt who lived during the days of Moses and declared: The whole point being that "the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it [these important earthly thrones] to whomsoever he will. In conclusion, as the scripture states, ". By Him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: He [God] removeth kings, and setteth up kings.
Mankind has straid from the divine creation. On this subject, a very appropriate point was made in the Gospel of Mark, which states, "What therefore God hath joined together [what God created], let not man put asunder. In other words, we should support, promote and encourage the kind of government, the Lord recommended to usthe rule of constitutional monarchs. This is in our very best interests. That is, we can so very easily go counter to the will of heaven and set up inferior national governments republics that fail to bring out the very best in people.
See " Ideals " and " Advantages " There is simply no better type of government than to have a royal king or prince, constitutionally bound, ruling for a more stable and a prosperous nation. International law and justice have recognized the right of true kings and princes or their successors to continue to rule, or to be restored to their ancient patrimony so they can preside as rightful heads of state.
Nevertheless, monarchy must be limited and constitutional as shown in the type of system the Lord originally established in the House of Israel See " A Limited Monarchy was Instituted in Ancient Israel " It should be part of an elaborate system of checks and balances in order to protect what is a most sacred, precious treasure, that is, freedom and prosperity.
This is what we advocate that there might be a brighter, healthier and happier future for all mankind in general. In other words, part of the curse of sin is to lose the great blessing and national benefit of having a royal family.
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Something for which one can feel favored or fortunate to have. If He desires their reform He sends them a reformer, and if He desires their destruction He sends them one who shall cause their perdition.
In addition, a number of times prophecy has mention that there will be kingship in Islam. There shall be a tyrannical kingship mulkan jabriyyatan.
There shall be kingship and tyranny. Monarchy has Obligations St. His final conclusion was ratified by Pope Pius VI - almost in the very same words. In writing after writing, before and since [Pope Pius VI], various Popes heaped praise on the institution [of monarchy], pointing out its roots in the Kingship of Christ Himself.
No better modern witness to the Catholic view of Monarchy may be found then John Healy, Archbishop of Tuam at his death in The character of Kings is sacred: Their power is broad - based upon the Will of God, and not on the shifting sands of the people's Will Coulombe, "The Monarchy in Australia"--see: Constitutional monarchy is a divine institution that has much to offer and benefit mankind. But undoubtedly the highest of all endorsements of monarchy is the fact that heaven itself is a monarchy.
All monarchies, whether they attempt to or not, are, in one way or another, but a reflection of something that was created in heaven. It imitates the majesty and ideals of the kingship of God over all things. Thus divine graces or the virtues of heaven are consciously or unconsciously expected. For kings, in most cultures, were to be divine or godlike in character and represent deity.
Failure to fulfill divine mandates for righteous behavior has resulted in disaster. Jeremiah, the prophet declared to one king: Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy people that enter in by these gates: For if ye do this thing indeed, then shall there enter in by the gates of this house kings sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, and his people.
But if ye will not hear these words, I swear by myself, saith the LORD, that this house shall become a desolation. Maitland as "the crown and flower of English jurisprudence.
Imperial descendants formed the highest class of ancient Chinese nobility, their status based upon the rank of the empress or concubine from which they descend maternally as emperors were polygamous. Numerous titles such as Taizi crown princeand equivalents of "prince" were accorded, and due to complexities in dynastic rules, rules were introduced for Imperial descendants.
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The titles of the junior princes were gradually lowered in rank by each generation while the senior heir continued to inherit their father's titles. It was a custom in China for the new dynasty to ennoble and enfeoff a member of the dynasty which they overthrew with a title of nobility and a fief of land so that they could offer sacrifices to their ancestors, in addition to members of other preceding dynasties.
China had a feudal system in the Shang and Zhou dynastieswhich gradually gave way to a more bureaucratic one beginning in the Qin dynasty BC.
This continued through the Song dynastyand by its peak power shifted from nobility to bureaucrats. This development was gradual and generally only completed in full by the Song dynasty.
In the Han dynastyfor example, even though noble titles were no longer given to those other than the Emperor's relatives, the fact that the process of selecting officials was mostly based on a vouching system by current officials as officials usually vouched for their own sons or those of other officials meant that a de facto aristocracy continued to exist.
This process was further deepened during the Three Kingdoms period with the introduction of the Nine-rank system. By the Sui dynastyhowever, the institution of the Imperial examination system marked the transformation of a power shift towards a full bureaucracy, though the process would not be truly completed until the Song dynasty.
Titles of nobility became symbolic along with a stipend while governance of the country shifted to scholar officials. In the Qing dynasty titles of nobility were still granted by the emperor, but served merely as honorifics based on a loose system of favors to the Qing emperor. Under a centralized system, the empire's governance was the responsibility of the Confucian-educated scholar-officials and the local gentry, while the literati were accorded gentry status.
For male citizens, advancement in status was possible via garnering the top three positions in imperial examinations. The oldest held continuous noble title in Chinese history was that held by the descendants of Confuciusas Duke Yanshengwhich was renamed as the Sacrificial Official to Confucius in by the Republic of China. The title is held by Kung Tsui-chang. The bestowal of titles was abolished upon the establishment of the People's Republic of China inas part of a larger effort to remove feudal influences and practises from Chinese society.
Islamic world[ edit ] In some Islamic countries, there are no definite noble titles titles of hereditary rulers being distinct from those of hereditary intermediaries between monarchs and commoners. Persons who can trace legitimate descent from Muhammad or the clans of Qurayshas can members of several present or formerly reigning dynasties, are widely regarded as belonging to the ancient, hereditary Islamic nobility.The Last Dukes (British Aristocracy Documentary) - Real Stories
In some Islamic countries they inherit through mother or father hereditary titles, although without any other associated privilege, e. Regarded as more religious than the general population, many people turn to them for clarification or guidance in religious matters. In Iranhistorical titles of the nobility including MirzaKhaned-Dowleh and Shahzada "Son of a Shahare now no longer recognised.
An aristocratic family is now recognised by their family nameoften derived from the post held by their ancestors, considering the fact that family names in Iran only appeared in the beginning of the 20th century. Sultans have been an integral part of Islamic history. During the Ottoman Empire in the Imperial Court and the provinces there were many Ottoman titles and appellations forming a somewhat unusual and complex system in comparison with the other Islamic countries.
MONARCHY AND NOBILITY: DIVINE RIGHTS & RESPONSIBILITIES
The bestowal of noble and aristocratic titles was widespread across the empire even after its fall by independent monarchs. One of the most elaborate examples is that of the Egyptian aristocracy's largest clan, the Abaza family. Japan[ edit ] Japanese samurai, Medieval Japan developed a feudal system similar to the European system, where land was held in exchange for military service. As in Europe, they commanded private armies made up of samuraian elite warrior class ; for long periods, these held the real power without a real central governmentand often plunged the country into a state of civil war.
Feudal title and rank were abolished during the Meiji Restoration inand was replaced by the kazokua five-rank peerage system after the British example, which granted seats in the upper house of the Imperial Diet ; this ended in following Japan's defeat in World War II. Philippines[ edit ] Left to right: Images from the Boxer Codex illustrating ancient Filipino nobility wearing the distinctive colours of their social status: Like other Southeast Asian countries, many regions in the Philippines have indigenous nobility, partially influenced by Hindu, Chinese, and Islamic custom.
Since ancient times, Datu was the common title of a chief or monarch of the many pre-colonial principalities and sovereign dominions throughout the isles; in some areas the term Apo was also used.
These titles are the rough equivalents of European titles, albeit dependent on the actual wealth and prestige of the bearer. Recognition by the Spanish Crown[ edit ] Upon the islands' Christianisationthe datus retained governance of their territories despite annexation to the Spanish Empire.
In a law signed 11 June King Philip II of Spain ordered that the indigenous rulers continue to receive the same honours and privileges accorded them prior their conversion to Catholicism. The Laws of the Indies and other pertinent Royal Decrees were enforced in the Philippines and benefited many indigenous nobles. At the Real Academia de la Historia, there is a substantial number of records providing reference to the Philippine Islands, and while most parts correspond to the history of these islands, the Academia did not exclude among its documents the presence of many genealogical records.
The archives of the Academia and its royal stamp recognized the appointments of hundreds of natives of the Philippines who, by virtue of their social position, occupied posts in the administration of the territories and were classified as "nobles".
This aspect of Spanish rule in the Philippines appears much more strongly implemented than in the Americas. Hence in the Philippines, the local nobility, by reason of charge accorded to their social class, acquired greater importance than in the Indies of the New World.
Other honors and high regard were also accorded to the Christianized Datus by the Spanish Empire. Religious titles Caliphwas the ruler of the caliphatean Islamic title indicating the successor to Muhammad. Both a religious and a secular leader; the Caliph was the secular head of the international Muslim community, as a nation. To claim the Caliphate was, theoretically, to claim stewardship over Muslims on earth, under the sovereignty of Allah.
See Amir al-Mu'minin above. This did not necessarily mean that the Caliph was himself the supreme authority on Islamic law or theology; that still fell to the Ulema. The role of the Caliph was to oversee and take responsibility for the Muslim community's political and governmental needs both within and beyond the borders of his territorial realmrather than to himself determine matters of doctrine, like the Pope.
Royal and noble ranks
Dalai Lamathe highest authority in Tibetan or more specifically Gelug Buddhism and a symbol of the unification of Tibetsaid to belong to a line of reincarnations of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. Among other incarnate Tibetan lamas, the second highest Gelug prelate is the Panchen Lama. The chief of the rival Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism is the Karmapa. Popederived from Latin and Italian papa, the familiar form of "father" also " Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ" ; once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the Papal States and leader of Christendomthe Pope is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state Vatican City.
Also the title of the leader of the Coptic Church. Saltiguethe high priests and priestesses of the Serer people. They are the diviners in Serer religion. Other sovereigns, royalty, peers, and major nobility[ edit ] Main articles: Royal familyPeerageNobilityand Imperial immediacy Several ranks were widely used for more than a thousand years in Europe alone for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns.
Additional knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign.
However, joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. Several of the following ranks were commonly both sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince.