Mausoleum at Halicarnassus - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the film, Rise of an Empire, Artemisia is featured as the main Unlike Vidal's portrayal, Artemisia has a hostile relationship with General .. and the sister (and later spouse) and the successor of Mausolus, ruler of Caria. Mausolus. Artemisia I (played by Eva Green in the film Rise of an Empire) was the tended to conflate the queen with the later Artemisia II of Caria (no relation), who Mausolus, a Wonder of the World: the eponymous Mausoleum. In Vidal's depiction, she had a long relationship with the Persian general Mardonius, In the film, Rise of an Empire, Artemisia is featured as the main .. Artemisia Prepares to Drink the Ashes of her Husband, Mausolus (c. ) by.
A staircase, flanked by stone lions, led to the top of this platform. Along the outer wall of the courtyard were many statues depicting gods and goddesses. At each corner stone warriors, mounted on horseback, guarded the tomb.
At the center of the platform was the tomb itself. Made mostly of marble, the structure rose as a square, tapering block to about one-third of the Mausoleum's foot height.
One part showed the battle of the Centaurs with the Lapiths. Another depicted Greeks in combat with the Amazons, a race of warrior women. On top of this section of the tomb thirty-six slim columns rose for another third of the height.
Standing in between each column was another statue. Behind the columns was a solid block that carried the weight of the tomb's massive roof.
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The roof, which comprised most of the final third of the height, was in the form of a stepped pyramid with 24 levels. Perched on top was the tomb's penultimate work of sculpture craved by Pytheos: Four massive horses pulling a chariot in which images of Mausolus and Artemisia rode. The City in Crisis Soon after construction of the tomb started Artemisia found herself in a crisis.
When the Rhodians heard of his death, they rebelled and sent a fleet of ships to capture the city of Halicarnassus. Knowing that the Rhodian fleet was on the way, Artemisa hid her own ships at a secret location at the east end of the city's harbor. After troops from the Rhodian fleet disembarked to attack, Artemisia's fleet made a surprise raid, captured the Rhodian fleet, and towed it out to sea.
In Honor of the King: The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Artemisa put her own soldiers on the invading ships and sailed them back to Rhodes. Fooled into thinking that the returning ships were their own victorious navy, the Rhodians failed to put up a defense and the city was easily captured, quelling the rebellion. Artemisa lived for only two years after the death of her husband. Both would be buried in the yet unfinished tomb. According to Pliny, the craftsmen decided to stay and finish the work after their patron died "considering that it was at once a memorial of their own fame and of the sculptor's art.
It was untouched when the city fell to Alexander the Great in B. It stood above the city ruins for some 17 centuries. Then a series of earthquakes in the 13th century shattered the columns and sent the stone chariot crashing to the ground. Destruction by the Crusaders Crusaders, who had little respect for ancient culture, occupied the city from the thirteen century onward and recycled much of the building stone into their own structures.
In rumors of a Turkish invasion caused Crusaders to strengthen the castle at Halicarnassus which was by then known as Bodrum and some of the remaining portions of the tomb were broken up and used within the castle walls. Indeed, sections of polished marble from the tomb can still be seen there today.
Another interpretation of the Mausoleum. Copyright Lee Krystek, At this time a party of knights entered the base of the monument and discovered the room containing a great coffin. Deciding it was too late to open it that day, the party returned the next morning to find the tomb, and any treasure it may have contained, plundered. The bodies of Mausolus and Artemisia were missing, too.
The Knights claimed that Moslem villagers were responsible for the theft, but it is more likely that some of the Crusaders themselves plundered the graves. Before grounding much of the remaining sculpture of the Mausoleum into lime for plaster, the Knights removed several of the best works and mounted them in the Bodrum castle.
There they stayed for three centuries. At that time the British ambassador obtained several of the statutes from the castle, which now reside in the British Museum.
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He had a difficult job. The name Artemisia derives from Artemis nf. Battle of Salamis Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies.
Artemisia was the only one of Xerxes' naval commanders to advise against the action, then went on to earn her king's praise for her leadership in action during his fleet's defeat by the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis September, BC. Preparations[ edit ] Coinage of Caria at the time of Artemisia c. Coinage of KaunosCaria at the end of Artemisia's rule, and beginning of the rule of her son Pisindelis. Winged female figure running right, head left, holding kerykeion in her right hand, and a victory wreath in left.
Baetyl in incuse square. Before the battle of Salamis, Xerxes gathered all his naval commanders and sent Mardonios to ask whether or not he should fight a naval battle. Tell the King to spare his ships and not do a naval battle because our enemies are much stronger than us in the sea, as men are to women. And why does he need to risk a naval battle? Athens for which he did undertake this expedition is his and the rest of Greece too.
No man can stand against him and they who once resisted, were destroyed. The Greeks can't hold out against him for very long.300: Rise of an Empire (2014) - Surrender to Me Scene (9/10) - Movieclips
They will leave for their cities, because they don't have food in store on this island, as I have learned, and when our army will march against the Peloponnese they who have come from there will become worried and they will not stay here to fight to defend Athens.
In addition, he should also consider that he has certain untrustworthy allies, like the Egyptiansthe Cypriansthe Kilikians and the Pamphylianswho are completely useless. Despite this, he gave orders to follow the advice of the rest of his commanders.
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Xerxes thought that at the naval battle of Artemisium his men acted like cowards because he was not there to watch them. But this time he would watch the battle himself to ensure they would act bravely.
The ships she brought had the second best reputation in the whole fleet, next to the ones from Sidon. Artemisia, who moves me to marvel greatly that a woman should have gone with the armament against Hellas; for her husband being dead, she herself had his sovereignty and a young son withal, and followed the host under no stress of necessity, but of mere high-hearted valour.
Artemisia was her name; she was daughter to Lygdamis, on her father's side of Halicarnassian lineage, and a Cretan on her mother's. She was the leader of the men of Halicarnassus and Cos and Nisyrus and Calydnos, furnishing five ships. Her ships were reputed the best in the whole fleet after the ships of Sidon; and of all his allies she p gave the king the best counsels. The cities, whereof I said she was the leader, are all of Dorian stock, as I can show, the Halicarnassians being of Troezen, and the rest of Epidaurus.
As Herodotus says, during the battle, and while the Persian fleet was facing defeat, an Athenian ship pursued Artemisia's ship and she was not able to escape, because in front of her were friendly ships. The Calyndian ship sank. When she chased a Greek ship, she hoisted the Persian colours. But when she was chased by a Greek ship, she hoisted the Greek colours, so that the enemy might mistake her for a Greek and give up the pursuit. One of the men who was next to Xerxes said to him: None of the crew of the Calyndian ship survived to be able to accuse her otherwise.