Links between knowledge, attitude and practices have been derived internationally in relation to health issues , and there is support for a. Association between Knowledge-Attitude-Practices and Control of Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure, and Blood Lipids in Patients with Type 2. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) rho correlation was used to identify association between the study.
Published online Feb 5.
Find articles by Keran Wang Jay E. Maddock Find articles by Jay E. Received Dec 23; Accepted Jan This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The questionnaires were completed by participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities.
In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality.
Introduction Clean air is considered a basic tenet of human health and well-being. As the largest developing country in the world, China has started to experience economic prosperity across many sectors. However, rapid economic growth has been accompanied with sharp increases in environmental pollution, most notably, air pollution. Energy consumption is the main source of air pollutants in China, including: InChina issued updated Standards for Ambient Air to control air pollution [ 2 ].
Following those updates, the China Environmental Aspect Bulletin reported that only three cities met the air quality standards, while The main contaminant was PM2.
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As a major atmospheric pollutant in China, PM2. PM10 pollution is also an issue, and substantial health loss was observed in major Chinese cities due to PM10 in This includedpremature deaths, 92, cases of chronic bronchitis, and 7, outpatient cases [ 6 ].
It was estimated that the total economic health impact cost of poor air quality was approximately RMB Air pollution is known to lead to global climate changes. There is variety of air pollutants including greenhouse gases, but their effect to the climate changes can be very differently. The current amount of greenhouse gases, the natural portion of our atmosphere, has dramatically increased due to human activities, including increased car exhaust and the release of pollutants from coal-based power plants and varied manufacture factories.
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Carbon dioxide is well-known greenhouse gas and a common part of the car exhaust can trap heat from sun in the atmosphere, leading global warming and climate changes. More global warming and climate changes are expected to occur in future centuries if this issue cannot be seriously considered and addressed properly today. Recent researches have shown that maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy could lead to early fetal loss [ 8 ], premature delivery [ 9 ] and lower birth weight [ 10 ].
Postnatal children are particularly affected by poor air quality as their immune system and lung functions are not fully developed, and they also spend more time outside. Moreover, some studies concluded that somerespiratory hospital admissions could be avoided if urban air quality met Class II standards of AQI [ 13 ]. In addition, two study sites were selected to comparatively determine if there is a difference of KAP between respondents whose children were relatively healthy community group or unhealthy hospital group.
Such information could be vitally important for local government for the development of more impactful policies and effective measurements to control air pollution and improve air quality in future.
Face validity was done by Family Medicine Specialist and statistician. A set of Malay questionnaire was divided into 4 parts. Part I consists of demographic data, patient history of cardiovascular-related disease, family history of cardiovascular-related disease and source of knowledge. For the responses score of 2,1,0 was given for correctunsure and incorrect. Reversed scoring was given for negative knowledge items. The minimum score is 0 and the maximum score is Part III consists of 17 attitude items A asking about help seeking behaviour and the use of preventive method.
For a positive attitude item, score of 2, 1, 0 for agree, neutral, not agree respectively and this score was also reversed for the negative attitude items. Part IV consists of 3 practice sub-domains.
The KAP Survey Model (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices)
For a good practice items, score of 0, 1, 2 for never, seldom and always respectively. The scoring was reversed for negative practice items.
Data was checked and cleaned before conducting descriptive analysis to investigate the socio-demographic data. Simple linear regression was used to determine potential association between knowledge, attitude and practice and later multiple linear regression were used to confirm the association after adjusting for age, ethnic, marital status, occupation, education level, household income, medical illness and family history of medical illness.
Model fitness was used to check the assumption that overall model fitness, equal variance assumption, normality assumption and variable functional form were satisfied and to check the outliers, to make sure there was no outlier when plotting studentized residuals against the predicted value.
Later the final model of the association was done to determine the interpretations of results were valid. Majority of respondents were Malay Most of them had secondary education, unemployed Hypertension was the highest Details can be found in Vol. The interpretation was for every one unit increase in knowledge score, there will be 0. The result was found to be valid for interpretation as confirmed by the final model.
The interpretation was for every one unit increase in attitude score, there will be 0. The mean SD age for this study was Although it did not cover the whole adult population but it covered the middle age women who is at the highest to get the CVD.
Majority of them The big descripency was due to most patient who never attained formal education, usually cannot read and write causing them not eligible to take part in the study.
This will limits the real findings. They might have some form of knowledge on CVD as proven by current study and Oliver-Mc Neil and Artinian study that education level was found to be of no influence in the knowledge. The poverty index line in Kelantan based on the Ninth Malaysia Plan is RM 29, so for more feasibility, the income was round up to below RM approximately US Dollars as a low income.
Similarly income was also found to be of no influence in knowledge in the present study as shown in other study by Oliver-McNeil and Artinian. Self reported smoking in the present study account for 3.
Self reported obesity The possible reasons are hyperlipidaemia is an asymptomatic disease, that leads to delay in screening activities as reported in Noraza et al. Electronic and printed media This finding is almost similar with the study done by Mosca et al. Further discussion on this topic; please refer to the initial paper published in the same journal, January this year. Both studies showed the increment of knowledge will increase attitude score of the respondents toward CVD risk reduction.
Thus the increment in the CVD knowledge do motivates the respondents to change their attitude positively. Association between practice and knowledge Knowledge is an important part that promote behaviour changes and people must have adequate and correct information on CVD risk factors in order to implement preventive behaviour as found in current study and other supporting studies.
On the other hand, our finding from comprehensive KAP questionnaire and supporting studies concluded that in order to improve CVD prevention, we need to improve CVD knowledge in our population first. Association between practice and attitude The present study found that there was a significant association between positive attitude toward CVD prevention and implimentation of practice on CVD risk reduction similar to the study by Robinson et al.
Based on this study we had to put more effort on improving the practice toward CVD risk reduction by conducting the healthy behaviour program at our clinic.
Significant and positive associations between knowledge, attitude, practice found in this study is hope to encourage health care providers to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle. This data will provide the information data for the policy maker and primary care providers to make a comprehensive primary and secondary prevention programs regarding CVD prevention for women in our setting.
There are several recommendations that we can offer to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice on CVD among women in our population by the empowerment of health promotion, lifestyle modification and prevention programme on CVD among women. We should re-design our campaign to make it more interesting and meaningful than what had already been done. The awareness programme regarding CVD should be done not only at health centre but also in work place and public through campaign, seminars and health camp.
Combination with motivators, educators and other resources may make CVD course or camping more practical, informative and lively. Apart from that, we have to relocate the CVD screening team to actively identify the target group for CVD risk reduction and intervention. We also can create self-screening conner in our clinic for blood pressure, blood glucose and weight BMI self-checking while in the waiting area.
We also should encourage them to do it at home as well. In term of the limitation of this research, this study only provided the basic data on knowledge, attitude and practice about CVD in women particularly in Kelantan and cannot be generalized to other part of Malaysia. It was conducted within a limited period of time for such a large study population to cover, which may influence or cause bias in sample selection which we tried to reduce the bias by using stratified random sampling method.
Regarding questionnaire generated for this study, it did use the forced-choice method yes, no and not sureso a participant with no knowledge still has a 50 percent chance of getting the correct answer. There was also a possible over reporting or under reporting of their CVD risk and the reported attitude and practice regarding CVD may be not truly represent their actually believes and practice.
We encourage further intervention study to be done to find out the effective methods to boost knowledge, attitude and practice on CVD lifestyle modification among women. Similar study among adolescent age group should also been carried out in order to determine their knowledge on CVD, attitude and their healthy life style practice in earlier age in order to provide early intervention.
The KAP Survey Model (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices) | SPRING
Harmy MY and Rosediani M b. Acquisition of Data and Analysis: Rosediani M and Ranimah Y d. Critical revision and final approval of completed of manuscript: Rosediani M and Ranimah Y and Harmy MY Acknowledgements We wish to express our gratitude to all Family Physician Specialists, statistician, staffs and all respondents for their cooperation in this study and the ethics committee of USM and Ministry of Health for allowing us to conduct the study.
Percentage distribution source of knowledge. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease in Women. Women and Cardiovascular risk. Bello N and Mosca L. Epidemiology of Coronary Heart Disease in Women. You've come a long way baby: Cardiovascular health and disease in women: Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease.
Screening for blood pressure,cholesterol and glucose during National Heart Weeks Serum lipid and their relationship with other coronary risk factors in health subjects in a city clinic. Population distribution and basic demographic characteristic report population and housing census