### Equilibrium and Energy

The Gibbs free energy equation we will be working with is Delta or change in G is equal to change in enthalpy minus temperature multiplied by. The Gibbs energy, generally known as free energy, is defined by the state function G=U+PV-TS where U is internal energy and S is the entropy. What are the relationships between the Gibb's free energies and the equilibrium . we write the standard enthalpies below the chemical formula of the equation.

### Relationship between the free enthalpy (Gibbs free energy) change and the equilibrium constant

What is Gibb's free energy in terms of enthalpy and entropy? How does Gibb's free energy drive a chemical reaction? What is the tendency for Gibb's free energy to vary or change?

Gibb's Free Energy and Equilibrium Chemical and physical reactions can be represented by equations, using a few symbols to represent actually what is going on. This document introduces the concept of Gibb's energy.

How does energy affect the direction and extend of a reaction? To answer this question, we have to introduce the concept of chemical equilibrium for reversible reactions.

## Gibbs free energy

This concept is formulated as the mass action lawwhich defines the equilibrium constant K. The equilibrium constant K is related to the Gibbs free energy, G, or simply free energy.

Furthermore, the Gibb's energy is actually derived from the enthapy H and entropy S of the reaction.

Mass Action Law Since the mass action law is valid for many reactions, we discuss it using a general reaction with no specific reactants or products. Thus, K is called the equilibrium constant.

This is known as the mass action law.

Concentrations were used in freshman chemistry for simplicity. Thermodynamic free energy The quantity called "free energy" is a more advanced and accurate replacement for the outdated term affinity, which was used by chemists in the earlier years of physical chemistry to describe the force that caused chemical reactions.

InWillard Gibbs published A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces, in which he sketched the principles of his new equation that was able to predict or estimate the tendencies of various natural processes to ensue when bodies or systems are brought into contact.

By studying the interactions of homogeneous substances in contact, i. The condition of stable equilibrium is that the value of the expression in the parenthesis shall be a minimum.

## Gibb's Free Energy and Equilibrium

Thereafter, inthe German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz characterized the affinity as the largest quantity of work which can be gained when the reaction is carried out in a reversible manner, e. Thus, G or F is the amount of energy "free" for work under the given conditions. Until this point, the general view had been such that: Over the next 60 years, the term affinity came to be replaced with the term free energy.

Lewis and Merle Randall led to the replacement of the term "affinity" by the term "free energy" in much of the English-speaking world.

### Gibbs free energy and spontaneity (article) | Khan Academy

The free energy of a reaction at any moment in time is therefore said to be a measure of the energy available to do work. When a reaction leaves the standard state because of a change in the ratio of the concentrations of the products to the reactants, we have to describe the system in terms of non-standard-state free energies of reaction. The difference between Go and G for a reaction is important.

There is only one value of Go for a reaction at a given temperature, but there are an infinite number of possible values of G. The figure below shows the relationship between G for the following reaction and the logarithm to the base e of the reaction quotient for the reaction between N2 and H2 to form NH3.

**18.3 Gibbs Free Energy and the Relationship between Delta G, Delta H, and Delta S**

They therefore describe systems in which there is far more reactant than product. The sign of G for these systems is negative and the magnitude of G is large.

The system is therefore relatively far from equilibrium and the reaction must shift to the right to reach equilibrium. Data on the far right side of this figure describe systems in which there is more product than reactant. The sign of G is now positive and the magnitude of G is moderately large. The sign of G tells us that the reaction would have to shift to the left to reach equilibrium.