Rural Sociology: Relationship between Rural Sociology and Economics
Rural sociology relates to other sciences in many different catchsomeair.us correlates What are the relationships between political science and other social sciences?. For our precise understanding of the relationship between sociology and other social sciences we have to discuss them individually, which are discussed below: . Adam smith called it the science of wealth to meet and satisfy human supply other factors which influence the relation of supply and demands. What are the economic and social consequences of economic disparities etc.
Gilchrist says,"Sociology studies man as a social being ,and political organization is a special kind of social orgnisation; political science is more specialized science than sociology. Sociology is science of society which studies all organized and unorganized activities while political science is science of society which studies only organized activities.
Sociology studies only present society while political science studies present and indicates future side also. Sociology is older than political science.
Human society had first come in existence. State and other political system arise after years. Relation between sociology and Anthropology: Anthropology and sociology also deal with society but the only difference is that social anthropology mainly considers small groups and their culture but their area of study is basically the same. Actually both are same, two names for the same field enquiry. The study of ancient and simple societies are done by Anthropology ,while on the basis of that sociology studies the wider and complex societies.
Anthropology has been divided in to three parts. B-Cultural Anthropology which investigates the cultural remains of early man an of the living cultures of some of the primitive counterparts. With the help of this sociology studies cultural heritage and tries to understand the changes occurred by it. C-Social Anthropology deals with the institutions, behaviors and human relationships of primitives of the past and present.
Dube says basically there is no difference between both. Anthropology takes help from sociological research methods while sociology interprets the things on the basis of studies done by anthropology. Now a days Tribal societies an civilized societies are come closer to each other.
Even the influence of technology is increasing day by day in tribal societies. The changing social values are encourage them to form big groups A. Karoeber has called sociology and anthropology twin sisters.
Evans Pritchard considers social Anthropology to be branch of sociology. Anthropology is the study social and cultural features of primitive societies while sociology studies the social and cultural features of modern societies. The simple and static primitive societies's study is done by Anthropology while the study of complex and changeable societies is conducted by sociology. The study methods are different for both sciences.
Participate observation is main method of study in Anthropology and sociology uses survey method. Sociology is concerned with social planning where as Anthropology is not concerned with social planning.
It does not give any suggestion for future society. Relation between sociology and economics: There is also a relationship between sociology and economics which is another social science.
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Economics deals with the production of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like sociology which also consider how the goods are reachable to all members of the society. In society every social being has some economic needs and these needs are evaluated by economics. Economics is science of wealth, which is possible in context of society. Marshall says economics is study of economic activities which are related to human welfare. The following points are showing their relationship.
We can not imagine a society without economic needs. All cultural elements are influenced by economic system. Economic development and social progress go together in every society.
In society where there is lack of education, and prevalence of unemployment, crimes and poverty ,that can not be called economically developed society. Both sciences study some common factors of society like rural reconstruction, labor welfare, unemployment, poverty, social security, industrialization, social insurance and planning etc.
The theories of socialism, communism, democracy and welfare state are nothing bur the theories of social reorganization. According to Thomas, "economics is, in fact, but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology''. Economics studies the economic relations of the society while sociology does study of all social relationship. The approach of study of both sciences are different. Sociology conclude the things on basis of all factors while economics considers only on the basis of economic factors.
Both sciences use different methods of studies. The Inductive and dedective theories are important in economics,while sociology uses various methods like survey, case study, sociometry etc. Economic forces play important role in every aspect of social life.
But the scope of sociology is still very wider. Economics is much older science than sociology. In the end we can conclude with views given by Barnes and Beker, "Sociology is neither the handmaid, nor the mistress of other social sciences, but their sister".
Show the relationship of sociology and anthropology to other social sciences with man as the center? Relationship between sociology and anthropology: The two fields attempt to study societies by understanding the people from their own perspectives.
This involves learning to look past stereotypes and to understand other cultures from the point of view of those who live inside. What is the relation between sociology and political science? Society is a more general topic than politics; politics are just one element of society, although they are obviously an important element which tends to influence all the othe…r elements.Sociology and Other Social sciences
Hence, political science could be described as a sub-set of sociology. Sociology can be used to study how different groups of peoplethink. Political scientists use this information to understand thedynamics of politics as it relates to citizens. What is the relationship of sociology with other social science like economics? Relation between sociology and economics. Economics deals with the producti…on of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like sociology which also consider how the goods are reachable to all members of the society.
According to Thomas ,"economics is ,in fact ,but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology''. Political organisation is a special kind of social organisation and that is why political science is a special science while sociology is a general science. Political Science deals with organised communities only. Sociology deals with both organised and unorganised communities whereas Political Science is concerned only with organised communities.
As such sociology is prior to Political Science. Unlike Political Science which treats only conscious activities of man, sociology treats unconscious activities of man also.
Political Science starts with the assumption that man is a political being; sociology goes behind this assumption and tries to explain how and why man became a political being. Sociology and Anthropology lie so close together that they often appear as two names for the same field of enquiry.
Thus according to its etymological meaning, Anthropology is the study of man as such that is a study of the development of human race. Anthropology has thus a very wide field of study. Anthropology has been divided into three divisions: Anthropology thus devotes its attention entirely to the study of man and his culture as they developed in times long past. Sociology, on the other hand, studies the same phenomena as they exist at present.
In fact the historical part of Sociology is identical with Cultural Anthropology. Anthropology has contributed substantially to the study of Sociology. Sociology has to depend upon Anthropology to understand the present day social phenomena from our knowledge of the past. Sociology has borrowed cultural area, cultural traits, interdependent traits, cultural lag and other conceptions from social anthropology on whose basis cultural sociology has developed.
The discoveries of Linton and Kardiner have influenced sociology in no small degree. From their researches it is evident that each society has its own culture and the personality of its members is moulded according to it in their infancy. Likewise the research done by Malinowski has proved valuable to sociology. He has given a functional view point to the study of culture. The researches of Franz Boas and Otto Kineberg have proved that there is no co-relation between anatomical characteristics and mental superiority.
The concept of racial superiority has been disproved by anthropology. Karoeber has called sociology and anthropology twin sisters. Evans Pritchard considers social anthropology to be a branch of sociology. In the same way, some of the conclusions drawn by sociologists have also helped the anthropologists. For example, anthropologists like Morgan and his followers have come to the conclusion regarding the existence of primitive communism from the conception of private property in our modern society.
It studies its political and legal problems, family organisation, religion, art, industries and occupations etc. Sociology studies only its particular aspects.
The focus of sociologist is social interaction. Secondly, Anthropology studies cultures which are small and static while Sociology studies civilizations which are vast and dynamic.
Thirdly, Anthropology and Sociology are separate sciences as the former is the study of man and his culture as they developed in times long past; while the latter studies the same phenomena as they are at present.
It does not make any suggestions for the future. The fact that society is influenced by economic factors while economic processes are largely determined by the social environments clearly proves that the relation between Sociology and Economics is very intimate.
Economics is defined as a study of mankind in ordinary business of life or to be more exact, it is the science of wealth in its three phases of production, distribution and consumption.
It is thus concerned with that part of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainment and with use of material requisites of well being. Economics, in other words, is concerned with material welfare of the human beings.
But economic welfare is only a part of human welfare and it can be sought only with the proper knowledge of social laws. Economics cannot go far ahead without the help of sociology and other social sciences.
For instance, in order to solve economic problems of unemployment, poverty, business cycle or inflation an economist has to take into consideration the social phenomena existing at the particular time. Sociology is thus of considerable help to economics in providing specific data into which economic generalisations may be fitted. Economic and social order is inextricably interwoven.
Many of the problems of sociology and economics are common. The problems of population growth, environmental pollution, slum clearance, child and family welfare, and urbanisation are as much economic as sociological which cannot be solved unless and until the social attitudes of the people are given due consideration. The theories of socialism, communism, democracy and welfare state are nothing but the theories of social reorganisation.
Economic forces play a very important role in every aspect of our social life. It is for this reason that sociologists have been concerned with economic institutions. The earliest sociologists like Spencer have included the economic activity of man in their analysis of social relationships. Sumner, Durkheim and Weber also approached the study of society through its economic institutions. Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels had gone to the extent of asserting that economic factor was the sole motive force of the society.
Since their times, economic determination Economic conditions have a determining influence over the social has found a significant place in the theories of many social scientists seeking to explain this vital phenomenon. In spite of inter-dependence of these two sciences, as explained above they are quite distinct from each other, i the field of sociology is wider, firstly, the field of Economics is restricted only to the economic activities of man whereas Sociology is concerned with all the relationships which are not simply economic but social.
The scope of Sociology is thus much wider than that of economics; ii Sociology has a comprehensive viewpoint. But a sociologist, on the other hand, is primarily interested in the social aspects of economic activities rather than in the mechanism of production and distribution, iii Economics is much older than Sociology. Thirdly, economics is much older a science than sociology. Though philosophers like Comte would subordinate economics to, and include it in sociology. Sociology is a science of only recent growth whereas economics has attained an advanced degree of maturity.
It has been realised from ancient times that Geography has a great impact on human society, the influences of geographical conditions on human society are predominant and that there is a close relationship between physical conditions and social phonemena.
Geographical environment as defined by MacIver consists of those conditions that nature provides for man. It includes the earth surface with all its physical features and natural resources, the distribution of land and water, mountain and plains, minerals, plants and animals, the climate and all the cosmic forces, gravitational, electric, radiational that play upon the earth and affect the life of man.
There is no denying the fact that there is a correspondence between physical conditions and modes of living e. One can also observe the differences between the modes and exigencies of human life in mountains, in the plains and by the seaboard, in the desert and in the forest.
Some of the thinkers have attributed a dominant role to Geography, regarding it as the primary determinant of wealth and health, the size or energy of populations, of their customs and social organisations, of their creeds and philosophies.
One of the pioneers of modern social geography was a Frenchman Le Play who in his important study of European workers had developed the thesis that locality determines work and thus has a great influence on the economic organisation of the family and this social institutions of the people.
The emphasis of Le Play and his successors upon the relationship between the characteristics of the physical environment and social development has influenced the sociologists at other places also. They have made us aware of the inter-play between climate and topography and the various aspects of the physical environment on the one side and the political and economic, technological and cultural phenomena on the other.
But we should not lay too much stress on geographical factors determining the social life in a particular region. It is not necessary that similar environments should produce similar cultures. We have even in primitive societies different occupations being followed by different people in the same regional setting.
The geographical environments alone never explain the rise of a civilization. The growth of civilization changes and minimises the direct influence of local geographical conditions. Many of the occupations of the modern man have no relation to the geographical environments.
As the social heritage grows the immediate geographical factors would assume a less determinant role in the interpretation of society. Man has assumed great control over natural factors so that the overall influence of geographical forces is no longer overpowering.
The fact, however, remains that geography is a contributing, if not a determining, factor of human progress and, therefore, the relation between Sociology and Geography is intimate. Ethics is the science of morality.
Relationship of sociology with other social sciences
It is concerned with the moral rightness and wrongness of human action. Ethics and Sociology are intimately related to each other. Man is a social being. He acquires moral standards notions of right and wrong as a member of a social group. In other words, it is the society which influences the mental and moral development of the individual and it is the individual who in return seeks to conform his actions to the moral standards of his social group. Thus the real significance of moral life lies amidst a social group or in society.
Sociology is primarily concerned with the study of the social groups and it investigates into all aspects of human life — economic, political, religious, moral and cultural. Ethics throws light on the moral life of the primitive individuals and institutions. This provides a background of human conduct and may thus serve a good purpose for contrasting and comparing the moral conduct of the modern life with that of the primitive man.
Further, the personal good of the individual must at the same time be in harmony with the general good of the society as a whole. It is here that both Sociology and Ethics come close to each other. This close relationship between the two has induced some ethical thinkers to regard Ethics as a branch of Sociology.
Relationship of sociology with other social sciences
An ethics worked out upon the basis of the knowledge furnished by the sciences will make a larger use, therefore, of sociological knowledge than of any other form of scientific knowledge. Firstly, Sociology is a positive science, while Ethics is a normative science.
Sociology studies institutions, customs and manners as they are or have been while Ethics looks upon them as they ought to be. Secondly, Sociology studies men and their social relations collectively while Ethics studies men individually as moral agents of the society.
The Relationship of Sociology with Other Social Sciences
Thirdly, Sociology is merely speculative and has no practical bearing on any field of social life. Ethics, on the other hand, has some practical bearing on our conduct. It seeks to formulate the rules of conduct which all people should observe. Fourthly, Sociology employs mainly historical method in the investigation of its problems. Ethics, on the other hand, seeks to explain human conduct with reference to an end or ideal.
Finally, while Sociology is concerned- with the study of progress of social groups from the point of view of time, Ethics is concerned with the progress of society from the point of view of morality. Sociology and Social Psychology: Social Psychology deals with mental processes of man considered as a social being.