Introduction. Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates how individuals, groups and structure affect and is affected by behavior. Structure and culture are the key elements in an organization's success. If an organization operates by concentrating on these aspects, it becomes easy to attract. and culture. P Compare and contrast different organisational structure. The Relationship between the Structure, Culture, and Management Styles in Tescos Also, will analyse the key theories and concepts of culture.
This is a highly effective type of structure in most cases. They are usually led by Project Managers who report directly to the head of the organization. These shared values have a strong influence on the people in the organization and dictate how they dress, act, and perform their jobs. Organizational Culture can be defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization.
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. According to NeedleOrganizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture; culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits.
Culture of an organization is not always easy to explain but it can be felt or sensed much more distinctly. Simply put, it is the personality of the company. This type of culture is well defined and stable. It is quite a formal culture which emphasizes on control and authority to keep the organization running smoothly. This type of culture offers security and stability. This type of culture is similar to Hierarchy Culture in the sense that it also focuses somewhat on security and stability but it is driven results.
Is There a Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture?
It is a very competitive environment to work in and there is very high focus on production. The focus of this type of organizational culture is the employees of the organization.
It is a very friendly environment to work in. Loyalty is emphasized and employees are asked to express themselves more openly.
There is also a lot of importance given to teamwork. This type of culture emphasizes thinking outside the box. Employees are given a bit of latitude to experiment and to think differently. Creativity is encouraged and appreciated. The atmosphere is dynamic and roles are not always defined. It is quite different from the rest of the organizational cultures. Like organizational structures, it is not necessary that one type of culture will be prevalent throughout an organization.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy see below and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others.Organizational structure and culture relationship
A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfil each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy see below. Managers should also recognise that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace.
They may therefore have to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.
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Herzberg Frederick Herzberg had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder Motivators. However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder Hygiene factors Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself.
For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. For example a worker will only turn up to work if a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not make him work harder at his job once he is there.
Importantly Herzberg viewed pay as a hygiene factor which is in direct contrast to Taylor who viewed pay and piece-rate in particular. Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Motivation plays a huge role in any organization or company.
The level of motivation can directly affect not only the quality of life but can strengthen or weaken the bottom line. Managers can keep their employees motivated by identifying individual factors that influence behaviour, understanding and applying motivation theories and enacting effective behaviour modification that encourages a higher level of motivation for the individual employee.
A motivated workforce can make any company or organization a competitive force. Employees who are motivated usually produce at a higher level, create a better product or service and can be fertile ground for innovative ideas.
Nature of groups and technology The term group can be defined as two or more persons interacting and working together for a common purpose. When people work in groups rather than as individuals, the goals of the Organization can be easily achieved. However, working in a group is a complex task. Group dynamics refers to the interactions between the members of a group.
A work group of an organization is the main foundation for the social identity of employees in that organization. Hence, performance at work and relationships outside the organization are influenced by the nature of groups in the organization.
In this unit, we will discuss the nature and types of groups and the stages in development of groups along with the structure, tasks, and processes of groups.
Different types of groups are formed to achieve specific results in organizations. There are three views on the nature of interaction between members of a group or group dynamics.
The first view is the normative view, which describes how to carry out activities and organize a group. According to the second view, group dynamics consists of a set of techniques which include brainstorming, role play, team building, sensitivity training, self-managed teams, and transactional analysis.
The third view explains group dynamics from the viewpoint of the internal nature of the groups. The formation of groups, structure, processes, and functioning are discussed in this view along with the effect of groups on individuals, other groups, and the complete organization.
The use of new technologies can improve and in some cases hider team functioning. As technology changes teams must update and maintain their knowledge in order to function effectively. There are technologies like e-mail, mobile phones, groupware and computers which have improved team functions. E-mail allows asynchronous communication which team members do not be in the same place at the same time in order to communicate effectively.
Mobile phones have come a long way from yuppie bricks of the s and there are now more mobile phones in the UK then there are people.
Groupware enables teams to plan meetings, collaborate, delegate all within a virtual environment which can often be accessed remotely from anywhere in the world. Computers allow team members to carry out various tasks and communicate more effectively. Laptop computers allow you to do this anywhere. The decisions about organisational cultural themselves may be influenced heavily by external events. A company that is heavily regulated by the government has to have certain procedures in place to be compliant with the law.
This is especially true of financial institutions, and while they made appear extremely formal to the outsider be defined structure is necessary for financial reporting and compliance purposes.
Other cultures have to respond immediately to changes. The software and mobile application industries need to have cultures that can react quickly to any technological change. This means the structure may have an orientation towards teams as opposed to departments, or only three levels of staff, with executives not that distant from the workforce in the hierarchy. Communication flow within the organisation may have to be formal or informal, depending on what is demanded by external factors.
A software company that has to move quickly cannot have the hierarchical structure of a bank. The reason why many corporate mergers experience initial difficulty is that two separate cultures, with different structures as well, are joined together.
No matter how upper management tries to allow both to coexist, sooner or later one organisational culture and structure is going to prevail. Organisations can change with time.
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