List of rivers of Pakistan - Wikipedia
The South Asian river basins, most of which have their source in the Rivers are, however, also a source of conflict between countries and people in the region. The five rivers of Pakistan are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sultej and Indus. The Chandra and Bhaga rivers in the upper Himalayas join to form. The Reddish Water is of River Kabul (Right) and the Greenish water is Both Reddish and Greenish waters flow side by side and present most beautiful view. The American Experience · Travel · People · Altered Images · Mobile River Indus and River Kabul meet and flow towards South of Pakistan.
The Ravi River is km long.
The river moves into Pakistan in the vicinity of Sulemanki and is subsequently met by the Chenab. The Sutlej is approximately 1, km long. Wildlife of the Indus River Chronicles of the Indus valley from the period of Alexander's invasion point towards a sizable woodland encompassing the area, which has greatly diminished as of now.
Babur, the famous Mughal Emperor, had mentioned about seeing rhinoceroses beside the riverbanks in the Baburnama his autobiography. Widespread cutting down of trees and human intervention in the ecosystem of the Shivalik Hills have resulted in a noticeable decline in the quality of foliage and cultivating circumstances. The areas in Indus valley are dry with meagre plantation. Cultivation is mostly dependent on irrigation water. Platanista gangetica minor or the blind Indus River Dolphin is a breed of dolphin seen only in the Indus River.
Earlier, the dolphin was also found in the tributaries of the Indus River.
Palla fish Hilsa of the Indus River is a preferred food choice for inhabitants staying on the banks of the river. The number of fishes in the river waters is reasonably high. Thatta, Sukkur, and Kotri are the important fishing hubs - all located in the lower Sindh itinerary.
However, irrigation and barraging has made fish cultivation a significant economic line of business. The big Indus valley delta is situated to the southeast of Karachi and it has been acknowledged by environmentalists to be one of the most significant ecological areas in the world.
In this area, the river converts into several wetlands, torrents, and tributaries and joins the sea at low levels. You will see plenty of sea fishes and other creatures in this area, which include prawns and pomfret. People living on the banks of the Indus River The inhabitants of the areas through which the Indus River flows on and creates a significant natural beauty and wealth, are varied in terms of faith, race, national and language settings.
In the district of Jammu and Kashmir on the northern itinerary of the river reside the Buddhist inhabitants of Ladakh, people of Tibetan ancestry, and the Dards of Dardic or Indo-Aryan ancestry who follow Islam and Buddhism.
Subsequently, the river goes down into Baltistan in north Pakistan, going by the important Balti city of Skardu. While the river flows through Pakistan, it creates a characteristic border of society and traditions. On the western banks of the river, the people are mostly of Baloch, Pashtun, and other Iranic ancestry, with intimate economic, traditional, and communal ties with areas of Iran and East Afghanistan.
Except for the micro relief, the plain is featureless.
It is divisible into two sections, the upper and lower Indus plains, on account of their differing physiographic features. In the lower plain the Indus River has a Nilotic character; i.
The plain narrows to form a corridor near Mithankot, where the Sulaiman Range comes close to the plain and the Indus merges with its last major tributary, the Panjnad River which is itself merely the confluence of the five Punjab rivers. Flooding is a perennial problem, especially along the Indus, as a consequence of heavy rains usually in July and August.
The upper Indus plain consists of three subdivisions: The Himalayan piedmont, or the sub-Shiwalik zone, is a narrow strip of land where the rivers enter into the plain from their mountain stage, thereby giving each a somewhat steeper gradient. The zone is characterized by numerous rivulets, which have produced a broken topography in parts of the zone.
These streams remain dry except in the rainy season, when they swell into gushing streams with considerable erosive power.
Indus River, Indus River Map
The doabs between the various rivers display similar micro relief, which comprises four distinct landforms—active floodplainsmeander floodplains, cover floodplains, and scalloped interfluves.
It is the scene of changing river channels, though protective bunds levees have been built at many places on the outer margin of the bet to contain the river water in the rainy season. Adjoining the active floodplain is the meander floodplain, which occupies higher ground away from the river and is littered with bars, oxbow lakes, extinct channels, and levees. The cover floodplain is an expanse of geologically recent alluvium, the result of sheet flooding, in which alluvium covers the former riverine features.
The scalloped interfluves, or bars, are the central, higher parts of the doab, with old alluvium of relatively uniform texture. The boundaries of the scalloped features are formed by river-cut scarps at places over 20 feet 6 metres high. The generally level surface of this section of the plain is broken into small pockets in Chiniot and at Sangla Hill, near the much denuded Kirana Hills, which stand out in jagged pinnacles. These hills are considered to be the outliers of the Aravali Range of India.
The largest but poorest of the doab s is the Sind Sindh Sagar Doabwhich is mostly desert and is situated between the Indus and Jhelum rivers. The doabs that lie to the east of it, however, constitute the richest agricultural lands in the country.
Until the advent of irrigation, at the end of the 19th century, much of the area was a desolate waste, because of the low amount of precipitation. But irrigation has been a mixed blessing; it has also caused waterlogging and salinity in some places. The intent was to build a large artificial waterway roughly east of and parallel to the Indus to carry salt water from the plains of Punjab and Sind Sindh provinces to the Arabian Sea coast in the Badin region of southeastern Sind.
However, instead of draining salt water away, the improperly designed tidal drain produced an environmental disaster in southeastern Sind: The tidal drain issue was further complicated by instances of severe weather in the coastal region, including a destructive tropical cyclone in and torrential rains there and in Balochistan in —both of which caused many deaths and forced the evacuation of tens of thousands of people.
The Sulaiman piedmont is different from the Himalayan piedmont in that it is generally dry. Seamed with numerous streams and wadis, the surface is undulating.Two Rivers Meet in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan..
The gradient of the streams is comparatively steep, the floodplains are narrow, and the right bank of the Indus sometimes rises just above the main channel. The lower Indus plain, the course of which goes through Sind province, is flat, with a gradient as slight as 1 foot per 3 miles 1 metre per 10 km. The micro relief is quite similar to that of the upper Indus plain.
The valley of the Indus and its banks have risen higher than the surrounding land as a result of the aggradational work of the river; and though the river is lined with flood-protecting bunds along its course, the alluvial sands and clays of the soil tend to give way before floods, leading the river to change course frequently. The level surface of the plain is disturbed at Sukkur and Hyderabadwhere there are random outcroppings of limestone.
The Indus delta has its apex near Thattabelow which distributaries of the river spread out to form the deltaic plain. To the southeast of that point is the Rann of Kachchh Kutchwhich is an expanse of saline marsh. Manchhar, a marshy lake west of the Indus, has an area of 14 square miles 36 square km at low water but extends for no less than square miles square km when full; on such occasions it is one of the largest freshwater lakes in South Asia.
The quality of groundwater in the Indus plain varies, that in the southern zone Sind being mostly saline and unfit for agricultural use. Extensive areas in both the northern and southern zones of the plain have been affected by waterlogging and salinity.
In the south the Indus delta in marked contrast to the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta is a wild waste. When high tides and Indus floods coincide, the littoral is flooded for some 20 miles 30 km inland. The desert areas The southeastern part of the Indus plain, from eastern Bahawalpur to the Thar Parkar region in the south, is a typical desert, an extension of the Thar Desert between Pakistan and India.