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Vincente Minnelli (February 28, – July 25, ) was an American stage director and film director, famous for directing such classic movie musicals as Meet Me in St. Louis (), Gigi (), The . especially in the articles by Jean Douchet and Jean Domarchi, who saw in him "a cinematic visionary obsessed with. Meet Me in St. Louis (). Young love and childish fears highlight a year in the life of a turn-of-the-century family. Dir: Vincente Minnelli | Cast: Judy Garland. When Mickey and Judy first met, in , Rooney had already . her best films, Meet Me in St. Louis and The Clock, as well as daughter Liza.
A prototype car radio was also demonstrated by inventor Lee de Forest. This was the first major event in a history of aviation in St. Louis leading to the city's nickname, Flight City. Air travel has become a vital component in today's global society. What they found was nothing like anyone else could have imagined. Still as a relatively new city, the streets were buzzing with activity, with many of its citizens constantly on the "go" and the streets "crowded with activity".
One observer remarked that, at this time, St. Louis had more energy in its streets than any other Northern Street did. Louis government and architects were primarily concerned with their ports and access to the city. Though transportation by water had always been important to the city St. Louis had originated as a trading postit was becoming even more important that the port be open, but efficient for all visitors. It also needed to show off some of the city's flair and excitement, which is why in many photographs one sees photos of St.
Louis' skyscrapers in the background. In addition to a functioning port, the Eads Bridge was constructed, which was considered one of St. As with the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago inall but one of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition's grand, neo-Classical exhibition palaces were temporary structures, designed to last but a year or two.
They were built with a material called " staff ," a mixture of plaster of Paris and hemp fibers, on a wood frame. As at the Chicago world's fair, buildings and statues deteriorated during the months of the Fair, and had to be patched.
Standing at the top of Art Hill, it now serves as the home of the St. The grounds' layout was also recreated in Maryville and now is designated as the official Missouri State Arboretum. This exhibit was dismantled and moved to Coney Island's Dreamland amusement park at the end of the fair.
It was dismantled after the exhibition and was reconstructed in Las Vegas at the Castaways hotel. Birmingham, Alabama 's iconic cast iron Vulcan statue was first exhibited at the Fair in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy.
Though it had sections with marble floors and heating and air conditioning, it was planned to be a temporary structure. However, it burned the night of November 18—19, just eleven days before the Fair was to end. Most of the interior was destroyed, but some contents were rescued without damage, including some furniture and much of the contents of the fair's Model Library.
Since the fair was almost over, the building was not rebuilt. After the fair, the current World's Fair Pavilion in Forest Park was built on the site of the Missouri building with profits from the fair in — After the fair, the organ was placed into storage, and eventually purchased by John Wanamaker for his new Wanamaker's store in Philadelphia where it became known as the Wanamaker Organ. It features hundreds of hand-forged bronze feathers and was the centerpiece of one of the many German exhibits at the fair.
It was built with proceeds from the fair, to commemorate Thomas Jeffersonwho initiated the Louisiana Purchase, as was the first memorial to the third President. It became the headquarters of the Missouri History Museumand stored the Exposition's records and archives when the Louisiana Purchase Exposition company completed its mission. The building is now home to the Missouri History Museum, and the museum was significantly expanded in —3.
Inwhen the main building at the College of the Ozarks in Forsyth, Missouri burned, the school relocated to Point Lookout, where the Maine building was renamed the Dobyns Building in honor of a school president.
The Dobyns Building burned in and the college's signature church was built in its place. Ina replica of the Maine building was built on the campus. The Keeter Center is named for another school president. The observation tower erected by the American DeForest Wireless Telegraph Company was brought to the Fair when it became a hazard near Niagara Falls and needed to be removed because in the wintertime, ice from the fall's mist would form on the steel structure, and eventually fall onto the buildings below.
It served as a communications platform for Lee DeForest's work in wireless telegraphy and a platform to view the fair. The most popular claim is that the waffle-style ice cream cone was invented and first sold during the fair.
However, it is widely believed that it was not invented at the Fair, but instead, it was popularized at the Fair. It is more likely, however, that these food items were first introduced to mass audiences and popularized by the fair. Dr Pepper and Puffed Wheat cereal were first introduced to a national audience at the fair.
Daughter of slaves, Annie Fisherbrought her beaten biscuits, which were already famous in her hometown of Columbia, Missouri. The exposition awarded Fisher's biscuits a gold medal. Though not the debut as many foods as claimed, the fair offered what was essentially America's first food court. Visitors could sample a variety of fast foods, dine in dozens of restaurants, or just stroll through the mile-long pike where food was celebrated. As one historian said of the fair, one could breakfast in France, take a mid-morning snack in the Philippines, lunch in Italy, and dine in Japan.
Louis, Louis ", which was recorded by many artists, including Billy Murray.
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Both the fair and the song are focal points of the feature film Meet Me in St. Louis starring Judy Garlandwhich also inspired a Broadway musical version. Scott Joplin wrote the rag "Cascades" in honor of the elaborate waterfalls in front of Festival Hall. Some natives from these areas were brought to be on "display" at the fair. Such displays included the Apache of the American Southwest and the Igorot of the Philippines, both of which peoples were dubbed as "primitive".
Later he was given the run of the grounds at the Bronx Zoo in New York, then featured in an exhibit on evolution alongside an orangutan inbut public protest ended that. He was owned by Dr. Rogers, who had Jim and Dr. Key on tour for years around the US, helping to establish a humane movement that encouraged people to think of animals as having feelings and thoughts, and not just "brutes. Key became national celebrities along the way. Rogers invented highly successful marketing strategies still in use today.
Jim Key could add, subtract, use a cash register, spell with blocks, tell time and give opinions on the politics of the day by shaking his head yes or no. Jim thoroughly enjoyed his "act"—he performed more than just tricks and appeared to clearly understand what was going on. Key's motto was that Jim "was taught by kindness" instead of the whip, which he was indeed.
Frontier Missionary of the Sacred Heart: Saint Rose Philippine Duchesne (1769-1852)
Exhibits[ edit ] After the fair was completed, many of the international exhibits were not returned to their country of origin, but were dispersed to museums in the United States.
The Vulcan statue is today a prominent feature of the Vulcan Park and Museum in Birmingham, Alabamawhere it was originally cast. It featured a blue whale, the first full-cast of a blue whale ever created. Visitors floated on rafts of all sorts in the tiny Forest Park Lake. Many Floatopias have occurred since, including the infamous San Diego Floatopia of '83 and the Santa Barbara Floatopia that has been happening for years. Nirdlinger 's book, Althea, or, the children of Rosemont plantation illustrated by Egbert Cadmus was adopted by the Commissioners of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition as the official souvenir for young people.
These games had originally been awarded to Chicago, but when St. Louis threatened to hold a rival international competition,  the games were relocated. Nonetheless, the sporting events, spread out over several months, were overshadowed by the Fair.
With travel expenses high, many European athletes did not come, nor did modern Olympics founder Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Louis bullfight riot On June 5,a bullfight scheduled for an arena just north of the fairgrounds, in conjunction with the fair, turned violent when Missouri governor Alexander Monroe Dockery ordered police to halt the fight in light of Missouri's anti-bullfighting laws.
Disgruntled spectators demanded refunds, and when they were turned away, they began throwing stones through the windows of the arena office. While police protected the office, they did not have sufficient numbers to protect the arena, which was burned to the ground by the mob. The exposition fire department responded to the fire, but disruption to the fair was minimal, as the riot took place on a Sunday, when the fair was closed.
Battle recreations took 2—3 hours and included several Generals and veteran soldiers from both sides of the war.
Yet the Society of the Sacred Heart, with a saint at the helm and at least one more in its ranks, grew to six houses, with many new postulants and prospects of more foundation, particularly in America. Philippine became the Superior of a new house in Paris.
Here she met Bishop DuBourg, who had arrived from America seeking recruits. It had been three hundred years since Columbus had carried Catholicism to the New World. Missionaries had watered the soil with their blood, and it had borne fruit. And the French had made great inroads in Canada as well as the Louisiana and Missouri territory, for which Bishop DuBourg was now seeking nuns.
As the good Bishop was discussing this need one day with Mother Barat, Philippine suddenly appeared, fell on her knees before the Superior General, and with clasped hands pleaded: Mother Duchesne was to have four companions: The seventy-day trans-Atlantic voyage was one of hardship and suffering: Seasickness and little privacy made religious life difficult, Mass impossible. Horrible storms, reminding Mother Duchesne of Judgment Day, struck terror in all; while at other times the wind was becalmed, leaving the sailing vessel to drift aimlessly for days.
What was worse for Philippine, she suffered a bout of spiritual dryness, a condition by which God often tries pious souls. Still, all five of the nuns endured the hardships so patiently that they made a deep impression on passengers and crew. Their daily singing of Ave Maris Stella brought peace to all. It was May 29, — providentially, the Feast of the Sacred Heart- when the nuns set foot, with deepest emotion, in America. The Ursulines begged the guests to establish a foundation there in New Orleans, but Saint Rose Philippine and her little band, their hearts set on St.
Louis, left in July on a forty-day journey up river. As on their ocean voyage, the nuns marveled at the glory of God reflected in the scenic beauty that surrounded them. Dark forest walls of moss-covered cypress, oak, and cottonwood rose majestically beside the glimmering water.
And the sunrises were beyond description. Finally, after having arrived in St. The five little Pratte girls were so taken with the sisters that they continually pestered their parents for permission to attend the school which the nuns intended to open. When the good bishop of Bards-town cordially received them, however, they met with another disappointment, as he informed them that their foundation was not to be in St.
Louis as thought, but in St. Sanctity On The Frontier On a bluff overlooking the Missouri River stood the small, rented dwelling which would be the first convent-school of the Sacred Heart in America. A few days later, Mother Duchesne opened the first free school west of the Mississippi, and two of the Pratte girls, joined by a cousin, became the first boarding pupils.
Education was modeled as closely as possible after that of the houses in France. But books and supplies were far from adequate; and for Philippine there was a language problem, as she was never quite able to master English. Always nearly destitute, the nuns and children alike suffered for lack of food and water.
The cold easily penetrated the thin walls, to the extent that water froze even when kept by the small fire — for which they had no means of obtaining wood. But hardship only brought all -children and nuns — closer together, while love of the Sacred Heart of Jesus sustained them. Nor did Providence abandon these souls. Boxes of provisions from France and New Orleans would arrive at opportune times and were appreciated enormously.
Word of all events at the foundation — including a chapel fire in which the Sacred Host was found unharmed in a charred pall and corporal — was faithfully sent on by Philippine to Mother Barat. As postage could not be afforded, however, letters often had to be dispatched via travelers, under the trusted protection of Saint Anthony. So esteemed were letters from Mother Barat, in return, that the elder saint always read them on her knees. For lack of enough students to support its school, this first foundation failed.
Mother Duchesne, in her humility, blamed herself: That thought makes the burden of my office all the heavier. Every day I see more clearly that I do not possess the qualities necessary in a superior. And across the ocean Mother Barat knew she had the best she could give in this holy daughter. I cannot tell you how excellent an impression they have made in this part of the world.
Mother Duchesne is a saint. Charles, the nuns moved to Florissant. School enrollment here was improved, and even a novitiate could be opened. Utter poverty; cramped living conditions; dangers of fire, flood, and epidemic; financial anxieties -nearly every hardship imaginable was borne by this holy pioneer without complaint. Yet, while continually praising the exemplary lives of the other nuns, she considered herself useless.
Of course, it was her own example of serving God in word and deed that elevated the others. She slept in a closet under the stairway. She was always the first to rise and the last to retire, for which reason the children often awoke to find their clothes mended and shoes patched by the saintly Superior. Her nights were often spent in adoration before the Blessed Sacrament, her mornings in fasting, with hopes that a priest would arrive to provide Mass and Holy Communion.
Saint Rose Philippine took on all manner of work, reserving the hardest tasks for herself. Indeed, her frequent ejaculations and vocal prayers sanctified both work and leisure. She was the delight of recreation, during which her joyful spirit and lively stories cheered everyone.
And her patience and kindness conquered even the most difficult children. She was the comfort of the sick, the consolation of the lonely and distressed. In a word, she was all things to all. Ina new foundation was opened at Grand Coteau, in Louisiana, whence Mother Duchesne sent her most valued nuns.
Later, having visited the flourishing new convent, she endured a prolonged martyrdom on the journey home. Yellow fever swept through the ship. Men were dying like animals, with no spiritual help save that of this poor nun, who managed to baptize at least one victim before he died.
Stricken herself, she and her young student companion were put off the ship. Deathly ill, the only refuge offered her was at the home of a man who had just lost his wife to the contagion. Upon making some recovery, Philippine and her companion recommenced the trip upstream. They gazed with horror as they passed the crumpled wreckage of the ship from which they earlier had been made to disembark.
The little group included some of the most distinguished names in the Missouri mission field. He called himself the spiritual son of Mother Duchesne and kept up correspondence with her until her death. They even made a pact that whichever should die first would grant the other a favor. Finally, the first Catholic school for Indians in the United States was opened. After nine years in America, Mother Duchesne was able to establish a long-desired foundation in St. Added to the customary deprivations here was the infrequency of Masses, due to a lack of priests.
But she continued to give of herself without reserve, as a letter from a younger sister to Mother Barat attests: Louis with my dear Mother Duchesne. I cannot tell you how hard she works or how she deprives herself in order that we may have more.
One can truly say she is like a victim continually immolating herself in the interest of our dear Society. After only twelve years, it had six houses- at Grand Coteau, St.
Charles re-opened in Missouri. There were 64 nuns — 14 from France and 50 Americans. And more than children were enrolled in the schools. But with the sweetness of this hard-earned success was mixed the bitter gall of many personal sorrows for Saint Rose Philippine.
Among these was the death of Mother Octavie Berthold. Alas, the demanding work at St. Louis was becoming too difficult for Philippine, now old and frail. A touching account is given of the young nun who unexpectedly came upon Mother Duchesne resting from her work in the garden. The holy old nun was clutching her rosary in one hand while brushing tears from her cheeks with the other.
It was a picture of unspeakable suffering patiently borne. But, though much had this gallant woman done for the Faith in America, she had much more yet to do. Ina new Superior General came to America. Mother Elizabeth Galitzin was a convert from the Russian schismatic church, and her overbearing, autocratic nature had not been tempered by the sorrows and sufferings of a Mother Duchesne. She pressed for changes and introduced new rules into the American foundations — actions which she would later regret, and for which she would heroically immolate herself.
Mother Galitzin relieved Philippine of her position and sent her back to St. Great sacrifices had our saint made, and many, many souls had she influenced. Yet, still her dream of converting Indians had not been fulfilled. But could she hope to be one of those sent?
After all, she was now seventy-two, weak and sickly — a most unlikely candidate for the demanding mission. It would take a miracle, Mother Duchesne realized, and so she poured out her soul to the Heart she loved so much. Only three nuns were presented to Father Verhaegen, the Jesuit in charge of this mission.
He had, of course, expected four. Turning, he saw Mother Duchesne praying silently, tears falling on the worn hands that held her beads. Her very presence will draw down all manner of heavenly favors on the work. Appropriately on the feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul, the little expedition struck out from St. Four days on the Missouri River and eight days of travel by ox-cart brought the missionaries to the Potawatomi settlement.
So eager were the Indians to receive the apostolic group that they came out in bands to greet it in their most festive dress, riding plumed horses. Seven hundred natives filed by to bid them welcome. The Indians appreciated Mother Duchesne from the start. Her age and venerable countenance aroused such admiration that they brought her gifts — their finest food and clean straw for her pallet.
Memorial Church of St. Philippine, unable to master the difficult ten-syllable language of the Indians, could not teach the children as had long been her ambition.
But what she could do, she did. She devoted four hours in the morning and another four in the afternoon to prayer before the tabernacle. The Indians would silently steal into the chapel to gaze at her in wonderment, or to kiss her worn habit, as she knelt so long motionless. She would have wished to stay here until she died, but it was not to be. After only a year among the Indians she was ordered to return to St. Charles, where she was to spend the last ten years of her life. Her response to this painful sacrifice was simply: Fasts were still strictly observed.
Her room was small and simple: Where Mother Duchesne died.
Her physical sufferings increased. The cold aggravated her rheumatism; walking became more difficult. Poor eyesight hindered her sewing and reading. For nearly two years, there were no letters from Mother Barat. Yet, across the ocean Mother Barat, for unexplained reasons, also had stopped receiving letters and grew very concerned about her saintly spiritual daughter in America.
Thus, Saint Madeleine bid her to make a special trip to Missouri.