Toni Morrison breathes through "Jazz" at Center Stage - Baltimore City Paper
A Castor couple has pleaded guilty to charges related to converting a enforcement officials he had met with Michael and Crissy Reeves in. Meet by the cafe at 10am each day, or if arriving later, enquire at the cafe if you can't . West Highland College UHI - Fort William @ Carmichael Way, Fort William, +; Castor Hanglands NNR @ Peterborough PE6 7EL. “The Carmichael Show” creator and star Jerrod Carmichael was taken aback last month when NBC tried to renew his sitcom with just a.
The narrative does skip forward and back from that moment when Dorcas is killed, and this movement, the pressure and swing, has a musical quality to it. Joe was sleeping in a tree; Violet stays up all night talking to him. They decide to marry and move to Baltimore aye. On the train north, Joe stumbles, and Violet smiles and says, "Joe, it looks like you're dancing. You get the sense that Kwei-Armah and Kelley are more interested in doing with the tools of the theater what jazz players do with the instruments themselves—arrange and manipulate them in a way that articulates feeling.
With a writer as imposing as Morrison, it would be easy to let the original novel overpower the script and reduce the staging to a sort of echo chamber for the Major American Novelist. Instead, Kelley and Kwei-Armah allow the full force of Morrison's voice to resonate by making her language part of the music of the play not the literal music, but the soul of it, its animating spirit.
Violet promises herself that she'll never have children, and throughout, repeats to herself her aunt's contraceptive formula: They never do have kids; they grow old. Joe, lying in their bed, says, "I miss that feeling. We used to have that feeling. Morrison's novel spans several generations and nearly a century back and forth between Virginia, Maryland, and New York, which is a lot to process in the play's single act.
Future iterations may do well to dial back from the original narrative scale, or to expand the script to accommodate it. So there's some ambient fuzz, but "Jazz" still allows space for moments to grow, and they do. At the center of it all is a story about a woman trying to understand how the man she loves fell in love with another woman. Violet and Joe were in love, and then Joe fell in love with Dorcas—or, as he said, rose in it. Rose to the point that he was willing to leave Violet for Dorcas, and eventually to the point where, when Dorcas abandoned him, he killed her for it.
In the Carmichael collection many notes refer to some type of home therapy instituted prior to seeking a professional opinion. While this certainly decreased the number of trivial calls, the acuity and severity of the cases were probably higher once the physicians were finally sought.
Several of the urgent letters request that the Drs. Carmichael send another physician if they were unavailable themselves. In February W. A significant proportion of the illnesses that plagued nineteenth-century Americans consisted of infectious diseases. An account from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, indicated that of deaths, 22 were due to consumption; 27 of fever including typhus, puerperal, inflammatory, and pulmonic; 4 of pneumonia; 3 of cholera; 2 of croup; and 2 of diarrhea and inflammation of the bowels Pfeiffer An array of infectious diseases is presented in the Carmichael collection, suggesting that this patient population is a representative sample of early nineteenth-century Americans and their illnesses.
Antibiotics would not be available until almost a century later, but the ideas of the contagious nature of some illnesses and disease prevention with inoculation and vaccination had been incorporated into medical science.
One of the most frequent complaints appearing in the Carmichael collection is fever. It is accompanied with bad cold and very high fever. Although the etiology of fevers remained elusive, fever patterns had been described. Interestingly, clinical thermometers were not in general use until around Blanton Buchan devotes a chapter in Domestic Medicine to a discussion of pyrexia: A fever is the most general disease incident to mankind.
It attacks every age, sex, and constitution, and affects every part of the body; nor is the mind itself free from its influence.
The Carmichael Show
A fever is known by a quick pulse, and increased heat, a general debility, and a difficulty in performing some of the vital or animal functions, as breathing, walking, etc Buchan Fevers could be divided into continual, remitting—in which the temperature would increase and decrease but not return to normal, and intermittent—characterized by asymptomatic periods of euthermia.
Intermittent fevers and associated chills were also referred to as agues and could be further divided into tertian—with fever and symptoms occurring every third day, or quartan—every fourth day Buchan Later this would be understood as malaria with tertian fevers due to Plasmodium malariae and quartan fevers due to P falciparum, P vivax, and P ovale, all transmitted through the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito.
Cinchona bark, also known as Peruvian bark, was an effective treatment for intermittent fever and had been known for several years. In the active ingredient in the bark, quinine, was isolated in France Rothstein Carmichael frequently used bark and quinine as evidenced by patient requests for additional supplies and receipts for such purchases. Invoices in the collection from George H. Quinine in April My wife is very Sick with an intermittent, Today is her sick day.
The paroxysm came on about 3 o. I will thank you to Send Some bark. And if you think there is any thing in her Situation which requires any particular course of treatment, please prescribe also.
James Maury wrote in June regarding a three-month-old child: The medicine I have been taking from you has relieved my head and bowels which are and have been for more than a fortnight in a costive state I am much afflicted with an uneasiness in my stomach… a heaviness at the pit of my stomach attended with a noisure which sometimes prevents my rest and I have a great deal of acid on my stomach… almost every thing I eat appears to disagree with me though I attend particularly to your directions with regard to regemin it appears to me that I have the cholic continually I had a very violent fit of it likely the obstruction I named to you still continues.
Cole wrote on behalf of Mr. Since my bowels is no better than when you saw me I have some days 15 or 20 pases during the day… I Cannot eat any thing pertickler of an evening when I go so often to the pot… I wish you Could send me some thing that will check it… what Comes is of a motlee tuff nater [tough nature] somewhat like snot with some little blood.
In hindsight these symptoms were probably due to infections with bacteria, such as shigella and salmonella; parasites, such as amoeba and giardia; or viruses. Other possible etiologies include malabsorption syndromes and inflammatory bowel disease. This is probably due to the employment of inappropriate terminology by the patients rather than an absence of the infection. Certainly, if the Drs. Carmichael had not treated cholera in their patient population, they were aware of the presence and impact of the disease.
A published letter to Dr. In his fourteen-page response Dr. Numerous other infectious diseases afflicted early nineteenth-century Virginians. Carmichael to me immediately—as I consider her to be in great danger delay not a moment for her life and my happiness depend on it.
In March Jane Mitchell wrote: My view of the case at present is this. In a following letter dated May 28,Urquhart wrote that they: His abscess worsens, he suffers persistent sweats, and there is bloody drainage. It is worth noting that inthe procedures proposed by Urquhart were not performed under sterile conditions or with the benefit of anesthesia. Joseph Lister was the first to routinely use antiseptics to decrease the incidence of post-surgical sepsis in surgical procedures in Surgical anesthesia was not employed until when Crawford Long first used ether.
Unhygienic living conditions prevailed during the early nineteenth century and made the early Americans susceptible to not just bacterial and viral infections, but also to parasitic infections. Most rural people used the woods or emptied chamber pots into a nearby stream, yard, or garden.
The rakings accumulated from around homes, yards, and slave quarters often became fertilizer for fields and gardens. As a result, farmers and slaves who worked the land and children who spent a great deal of time playing outside served as hosts for worms. The true prevalence of parasitic infections is not known, but literature supports the presence of Ascaris, the long roundworm, Trichuris, the whipworm, Taenia, the pork and beef tapeworm, and Diphyllobothrium, the fish tapeworm Savitt The other boy that was sick is dead.
In October F.
Meet the Carmichaels/The Box
The Carmichael collection includes a referral from another physician to Dr. Carmichael for therapy of a sexually transmitted disease. In June Robert Richardson wrote: Chapman wrote on July 11, I have since I saw you continued to take the pills according to your prescription until Tuesday last when my mouth became a little sore… The ointment I have likewise applyed in the [manner] you directed, on the sores, on the end of the penis which look I think a [little]. The skin I have not been able to get back yet;… The sores on the outside matter very freely; and so has the other until about two days ago when it stopped and has since that time looked very dry.
The primary treatment available to Dr. Side effects of mercury therapy included excessive salivation, tongue swelling, a metallic taste in the mouth, and painful inflammation of the tongue, salivary glands, and gums as this patient noted. In his text Rothstein described the devastating effects of this treatment: The mouth feels unusually hot, and is sometimes sensible of a coppery or metallic taste; the gums are swollen, red, and tender; ulcers make their appearance and spread in all directions; the saliva is thick and stringy, and has that peculiar, offensive odor characteristic of mercurial disease; the tongue is swollen and stiff, and there is some fever, with derangement of the secretions.
In an undated letter A. Peck stated to Mrs. Every attack is more and more violent and my constitution less able to bear them.: I suffered last week till I became apprehensive that convulsive fits would be produced. Robert Taylor in October declared: Sir I have a complaint.
Cooper, for extracting very small Stones from the bladder. In JulyGeorge Banks wrote: But thay are Better. I am afeard of the ointment this weather. In the previously cited data from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, consumption was named as the primary cause of death in 22 of the persons Pfeiffer Consumption is thought to be an infection with tuberculosis although certainly some of the cases of wasting syndrome may be due to other chronic medical problems.
Carmichael Letters :: An Analysis of the Carmichael Letters
No letters or notes in the collection refer specifically to consumption, but there are several references to persistent coughs and fevers. Two letters mention another, now common, pulmonary complaint: Julian has laboured under a most severe attack of the astma for the last fortnight she has taken during the time anti bilious Pills, Magneasia, Peppermint, Ether, and Laudanum and still continues to have it.
Carmichael suffered a wide array of diseases, many of them infectious. However, some of the most common diseases of today—namely cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer—are noticeably absent or at least very infrequently mentioned. The following letters are notable because they do indicate cardiovascular disease. William Herndon wrote in December In William Withering identified the active ingredient, digitalis, in the foxglove plant.
During his examination of the new agent he noted that it worked for some types of dropsy but not others and that it could have toxic side effects Lyons These observations are now understood because digitalis is an effective treatment for congestive heart failure but of no utility in treating edema or swelling from other nephrotic syndromes, malnutrition, myxedema, or other diseases. But it may be necessary he should still take bitters, or something to prevent a relapse.
Fanny Spindle wrote in June He is of opinion that it proceeded from the Bite of a Tick: In addition to the management of diseases, the Carmichaels treated various injuries. The Boy is in great pain. Brown wrote in February It is the request of Doctr Clayton that you would come up to Mr. The last freeze and I never have noticed them particular untill this morning.
They appear to be in a dangerous situation—I wish therefore you would examine them and if they can be cur.
A little negroe boy has nearly cut out one of his privates. These letters suggest that the physicians were called in cases with protracted labors or other difficulties, while midwives, or other persons in the home or community, managed uncomplicated deliveries.
Be so good as to go down and see her this evening. Brooke has been in Labour Mrs. Newton thinks the greater part of the night I fear by the time you can get here your assistance will be truly important and therefore request you will come with as much haste as you can. Gatewood in January reads: The Carmichael collection includes several letters requesting tooth extractions. In February C. He divided agents by function into the following classifications: The emetics included ipecacuanha, tartar emetic, and white vitriol, a zinc sulphate Gunn Antispasmotics included opium, laudanum, peppermint, and asafoetida.
This group included Peruvian bark of which there were three kinds—red, yellow, and pale—as well as dogwood bark, gentian root, Virginia snake root, chamomile, and Spirits of Nitre. Stimulants included sulphuric ether, opium, oil of turpentine, and spirit of lavender. Anodynes, prescribed to ease pain and induce sleep, included opium, laudanum, and paregoric containing opium, laudanum, flowers of benzoic, and camphor Gunn Leger Landon Carter wrote in October At the time these letters were written, the therapies known to be effective and disease specific included foxglove or digitalis for dropsy, mercury for syphilis, and quinine for intermittent fever.
While other remedies produced responses including vomiting and bowel movements, they probably did not impact the course or outcome of the disease. From the patterns of use described in these letters, many of these medications were used much more broadly than the indications noted above. Bark, Peruvian, pale, or otherwise, or bitters were used for all febrile illnesses and even illnesses without fever, and mercury was administered in all venereal disease.
The use of these various medications also induced some unwanted side effects. As previously mentioned, mercury and calomel, used primarily for treatment of venereal disease, had cumulative toxicity involving the salivary glands, tongue, gums, and teeth. Francis Brooke wrote in March Brooke demonstrated great fortitude to resume taking the powders at all after the severe reaction she suffered.
In addition to medications, another commonly used treatment was bleeding. In Domestic Medicine, William Buchan outlines the appropriate indications for bleeding: Bleeding is proper at the beginning of all inflammatory fevers, as pleurisies, peripneumonies, etc.
It is likewise proper in all topical inflammations, as those of the intestines, womb, bladder, stomach, kidneys, throat, eyes, etc; and also in the asthma, sciatic pains, coughs, head-achs, rheumatisms, apoplexy, epilepsy and bloody flux.
After falls, blows, bruises, or any violent hurt received either externally or internally, bleeding is necessary. It is likewise necessary for persons who have had the misfortune to be strangled, drowned, suffocated with foul air, the fumes of metals, or the like Buchan If a physician regularly employed these indications, it would be a rare patient who would not undergo bleeding.
Several methods of bloodletting were commonly used.
- Jerrod Carmichael
- Cynthia Carmichael
- An Analysis of the Carmichael Letters
According to Savitt, in venesection: