Trench warfare - Wikipedia
the-trenches scrumdevelopment yahoo group for proofreading and helping me improve the paper. . were meeting the first principle of the Agile Manifesto by Nokia standards. . read the books, maybe you've even taken your Scrum Master . Lyrics to 'Let Us Meet In The Trenches' by TRIORE: I won't raise my hand in anger; I won't speak no words of spite / The friends I had have parted; I stand barren. Consequently, as fire-power and human masses were increased, we could expect a war of trenches. That is something, but not much, for it does not give us the tactical data to help Thus the soldier failed to see the weird shape war was taking. of war supplies, even an army of sterling human quality will meet defeat.
Mass infantry assaults were futile in the face of artillery fire as well as rapid rifle and machine-gun fire. Both sides concentrated on breaking up enemy attacks and on protecting their own troops by digging deep into the ground. The Boer trench at the Battle of Magersfontein contributed to the surprise defeat of the Highland Brigade on 11 December during the Second Boer War Symbol for the futility of war[ edit ] Trench warfare has become a powerful symbol of the futility of war. Many critics have argued that brave men went to their deaths because of incompetent and narrow-minded commanders who failed to adapt to the new conditions of trench warfare: There were failures such as Passchendaele, and Sir Douglas Haig has often been criticised for allowing his battles to continue long after they had lost any purpose other than attrition.
These included improvements in artillery, infantry tactics, and the development of tanks. Bytaking advantage of failing German morale, Allied attacks were generally more successful and suffered fewer casualties; in the Hundred Days Offensivethere was even a return to mobile warfare.
Christmas in the trenches – Czech soldiers in WW1
Entrenchment[ edit ] Implementation[ edit ] German forward detachments guarding the entrance to a trench line in front of Arras in Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the SommeJuly One sentry keeps watch while the others sleep. Photo by Ernest Brooks Although technology had dramatically changed the nature of warfare bythe armies of the major combatants had not fully absorbed the implications.
The French and German armies adopted different tactical doctrines: The British lacked an official tactical doctrine, with an officer corps that rejected theory in favour of pragmatism. They required a deliberate approach to seizing positions from which fire support could be given for the next phase of the attack, rather than a rapid move to break the enemy's line.
To attack frontally was to court crippling losses, so an outflanking operation was the preferred method of attack against an entrenched enemy. After the Battle of the Aisne in Septemberan extended series of attempted flanking moves, and matching extensions to the fortified defensive lines, developed into the " race to the sea ", by the end of which German and Allied armies had produced a matched pair of trench lines from the Swiss border in the south to the North Sea coast of Belgium.
Trench warfare prevailed on the Western Front from late until the Germans launched their Spring Offensive on 21 March After the buildup of forces inthe Western Front became a stalemated struggle between equals, to be decided by attrition.
Frontal assaults, and their associated casualties, became inevitable because the continuous trench lines had no open flanks. Casualties of the defenders matched those of the attackers, as vast reserves were expended in costly counter-attacks or exposed to the attacker's massed artillery. There were periods in which rigid trench warfare broke down, such as during the Battle of the Sommebut the lines never moved very far.
The war would be won by the side that was able to commit the last reserves to the Western Front. They lacked traversesand according to pre-war doctrine were to be packed with men fighting shoulder to shoulder. This doctrine led to heavy casualties from artillery fire. This vulnerability, and the length of the front to be defended, soon led to front line trenches being held by fewer men. The defenders augmented the trenches themselves with barbed wire strung in front to impede movement; wiring parties went out every night to repair and improve these forward defences.
They resisted both artillery bombardment and mass infantry assault. Shell-proof dugouts became a high priority. After the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg line in Marchno man's land stretched to over a kilometre in places. On the Eastern Front and in the Middle East, the areas to be covered were so vast, and the distances from the factories supplying shells, bullets, concrete and barbed wire so great, trench warfare in the West European style often did not occur.
The Ortler had an artillery position on its summit near the front line.
The trench-line management and trench profiles had to be adapted to the rough terrain, hard rock, and harsh weather conditions. Many trench systems were constructed within glaciers such as the Adamello-Presanella group or the famous city below the ice on the Marmolada in the Dolomites. Trench defensive systems[ edit ] Very early in the war, British defensive doctrine suggested a main trench system of three parallel lines, interconnected by communications trenches.
The point at which a communications trench intersected the front trench was of critical importance, and it was usually heavily fortified. The front trench was lightly garrisoned and typically only occupied in force during "stand to" at dawn and dusk.
This defensive layout was soon rendered obsolete as the power of artillery grew; however, in certain sectors of the front, the support trench was maintained as a decoy to attract the enemy bombardment away from the front and reserve lines.
Fires were lit in the support line to make it appear inhabited and any damage done immediately repaired. Aerial view of opposing trench lines between Loos and Hulluch, July German trenches at the right and bottom, British at the top-left.
Temporary trenches were also built.
TRIORE : Let Us Meet In The Trenches lyrics
When a major attack was planned, assembly trenches would be dug near the front trench. These were used to provide a sheltered place for the waves of attacking troops who would follow the first waves leaving from the front trench. They fulfilled a variety of purposes, such as connecting the front trench to a listening post close to the enemy wire or providing an advance "jumping-off" line for a surprise attack.
When one side's front line bulged towards the opposition, a salient was formed. The concave trench line facing the salient was called a "re-entrant. Behind the front system of trenches there were usually at least two more partially prepared trench systems, kilometres to the rear, ready to be occupied in the event of a retreat.
The Germans often prepared multiple redundant trench systems; in their Somme front featured two complete trench systems, one kilometre apart, with a third partially completed system a further kilometre behind. This duplication made a decisive breakthrough virtually impossible.
In the event that a section of the first trench system was captured, a "switch" trench would be dug to connect the second trench system to the still-held section of the first. The Germans, who had based their knowledge on studies of the Russo-Japanese War made something of a science out of designing and constructing defensive works.
They used reinforced concrete to construct deep, shell-proof, ventilated dugouts, as well as strategic strongpoints. They were more willing than their opponents to make a strategic withdrawal to a superior prepared defensive position. They were also the first to apply the concept of "defence in depth", where the front-line zone was hundreds of metres deep and contained a series of redoubts rather than a continuous trench.
Each redoubt could provide supporting fire to its neighbours, and while the attackers had freedom of movement between the redoubts, they would be subjected to withering enfilade fire. The British eventually adopted a similar approach, but it was incompletely implemented when the Germans launched the Spring Offensive and proved disastrously ineffective.
France, by contrast, relied on artillery and reserves, not entrenchment. When he turned in that night, he heard a scuffling, shone his torch on the bed, and found two rats on his blanket tussling for the possession of a severed hand.
Having now been in the trenches for five months, I had passed my prime. For the first three weeks, an officer was of little use in the front line Between three weeks and four weeks he was at his best, unless he happened to have any particular bad shock or sequence of shocks. Then his usefulness gradually declined as neurasthenia developed. At six months he was still more or less all right; but by nine or ten months, unless he had been given a few weeks' rest on a technical course, or in hospital, he usually became a drag on the other company officers.
After a year or fifteen months he was often worse than useless. There was a daily exchange of courtesies between our machine guns and the Germans' at stand-to; by removing cartridges from the ammunition-belt one could rap out the rhythm of the familiar prostitutes' call: Patriotism, in the trenches, was too remote a sentiment, and at once rejected as fit only for civilians, or prisoners. Hardly one soldier in a hundred was inspired by religious feeling of even the crudest kind.
It would have been difficult to remain religious in the trenches even if one had survived the irreligion of the training battalion at home. Anglican chaplains were remarkably out of touch with their troops.
The Second Battalion chaplain, just before the Loos fighting, had preached a violent sermon on the Battle against Sin, at which one old soldier behind me had grumbled: England looked strange to us returned soldiers. We could not understand the war madness that ran about everywhere, looking for a pseudo-military outlet. The civilians talked a foreign language; and it was newspaper language.
It hurt like hell, let me tell you. They took me down to the field-hospital. I was busy dying, but a company-sergeant major had got it in the head, and he was busy dying, too; and he did die.
Well, as soon as ever the sergeant-major died, they took out that long gut Wonderful chaps, these medicos! The lining of the new gut is much better than my old one; so I'm celebrating it. I only wish I'd borrowed his kidneys, too.
Opposite our trenches a German salient protruded, and the brigadier wanted to "bite it off" in proof of the division's offensive spirit. Trench soldiers could never understand the Staff's desire to bite off an enemy salient. It was hardly desirable to be fired at from both flanks; if the Germans had got caught in a salient, our obvious duty was to keep them there as long as they could be persuaded to stay.
We concluded that a passion for straight lines, for which headquarters were well known, had dictated this plan, which had no strategic or tactical excuse. Nancy and I were married in January at St. James's Church, Piccadilly, she being just eighteen, and I twenty-two. George Mallory acted as the best man.
Nancy had read the marriage-service for the first time that morning, and been so disgusted that she all but refused to go through with the wedding, though I had arranged for the ceremony to be modified and reduced to the shortest possible form.
Let Us Meet In The Trenches lyrics
Another caricature scene to look back on: Shells used to come bursting on my bed at midnight, even though Nancy shared it with me; strangers in daytime would assume the faces of friends who had been killed I could not use a telephone, I felt sick every time I travelled by train, and to see more than two new people in a single day prevented me from sleeping.
During the First World War, the mental effects of war on the fighting men were called shell shock or neurasthenia — or dismissed altogether as cowardice. Graves describes very clearly symptoms of what would now be seen as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
These daydreams persisted like an alternate life and did not leave me until well in The scenes were nearly always recollections of my first four months in France; the emotion-recording apparatus seems to have failed after Loos. At the end of my first term's work, I attended the usual college board to give an account of myself.
The spokesman coughed, and said a little stiffly: Graves, that the essays which you write for your English tutor are, shall I say, a trifle temperamental. It appears, indeed, that you prefer some authors to others.
Professor Edgeworth, of All Souls', avoided conversational English, persistently using words and phrases that one expects to meet only in books. One evening, Lawrence returned from a visit to London, and Edgeworth met him at the gate.
My tutor I have already mentioned, Marcus Porcius Cato who was, in his own estimation at least, a living embodiment of that ancient Roman virtue which his ancestors had one after the other shown. He was always boasting of his ancestorsas stupid people do who are aware that they have done nothing themselves to boast about.
Let Us Meet In The Trenches lyrics - TriORE original song - full version on Lyrics Freak
He boasted particularly of Cato the Censor, who of all characters in Roman history is to me perhaps the most hateful, as having persistently championed the cause of "ancient virtue" and made it identical in the popular mind with churlishness, pedantry and harshness.
Athenodorus used to stroke his beard slowly and rhythmically as he talked, and told me once that it was this that made it grow so luxuriantly. He said that invisible seeds of fire streamed off from his fingers, which were food for the hairs. This was a typical Stoic joke at the expense of Epicurean speculative philosophy.
And Cato rose to the bait, shouting out with a string of old-fashioned curses that in the days of his ancestor, whose memory this stammering imp was insulting, woe betide any child who failed in reverence to his elders ; for they dealt out discipline with a heavy hand in those days. Whereas in these degenerate times the leading men of Rome gave any ignorant oafish lout this was for Postumus or any feeble-minded decrepit-limbed little whippersnapper this was for me full permission— Postumus interrupted with a warning smile: The degenerate Augustus insults the great Censor by employing you in his degenerate family.
I suppose you have told the Lady Livia just how you feel about things? Claudius the God [ edit ] The frog-pool wanted a king. Jove sent them Old King Log. Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature.
My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise. The frog-pool wanted a king. I have been as deaf and blind and wooden as a log.
Let Jove now send them Young King Stork. I have been far too benevolent. I repaired the ruin my predecessors spread. I reconciled Rome and the world to monarchy again.
Rome is fated to bow to another Caesar.
Let him be mad, bloody, capricious, wasteful, lustful. King Stork shall prove again the nature of kings. By dulling the blade of tyranny I fell into great error.
By whetting the same blade I might redeem that error.
Violent disorders call for violent remedies. I shall float inertly in the stagnant pool.
Let all the poisons that lurk in the mud hatch out. Not among those who might be expected to write well professionally.Triore - Let Us Meet In The Trenches