There is need for 'high-quality' teachers who are equipped to meet the . adapting, differentiating curriculum and managing diversity in the. 3 Ways to Plan for Diverse Learners: What Teachers Do Content comprises the knowledge, concepts, and skills that students need to learn based on the curriculum. When considering your students' needs, reach even higher in your adapting instruction and assessment to meet the varying needs and. Curriculum Integration and Adaptation: Individualizing Pedagogy for. Linguistically neither be appropriate for meeting the needs of their diverse students nor permit opportunities for meet both state standards and students learning needs.
In same curriculum, students experience the same content and activities, the same level of complexity curriculum leveland the same number of learning outcomes to be achieved.
A class is mostly working at level 3 in science and are learning about the concept of a fair test. Groups of students are required to set up four pots that have the same amount of soil and the same seed, and that receive the same amount of water each day. One pot is given some fertiliser to see if this makes a difference. The learning outcomes are understanding the importance of controlling variables to determine what makes a difference, and understanding how an adequate sample size makes a test more robust and minimises other factors.
In the science unit, Joel and Tama set up the same experiment using the four pots and are expected to understand that one plant grows more quickly because it receives some fertiliser. They are not expected to work on the other learning outcome related to sample size. In the science unit, Sharon is learning how to pot up a plant, and she uses an activity that involves matching pictures of plants with seeds to identify what the seed she is planting will turn into.
In the science unit, Katie helps her group set up the experiment. However, the targeted learning outcomes for her relate to communication from the learning area of English and the key competency of participating and contributing.
With adult support, she uses a visual schedule to follow the instructions and sequence of activities and works on maintaining attention and turn-taking. Airini excels in scientific investigations and is an advanced reader, absorbing several library books a week.
While other students are working on the fair test experiment, Airini is reading cultural folklore about plants. She loves the Chinese story The Empty Pot, and, based on it, she and her teacher agree she should design an experiment around her question, "What happens when seeds are heated to different temperatures before planting?
She will share her research results with the student council at their planning meeting for the spring garden. As Figure 5 demonstrates, multilevel curriculum and curriculum overlapping are appropriate for students working both above or below most of their peers 2.
Most students are solving word problems at curriculum level 3. The teacher supports some students to solve different word problems at level 2, and one student explores fractions using objects and pictures.
In Example 4an English teacher differentiates a year oral presentation unit for students working at NCEA levels 1 and 2, and, in collaboration with the Learning Support Coordinator, uses curriculum overlapping to include a student who is working towards a curriculum level 1 goal in the arts.
She is articulate, has an extensive vocabulary, and can confidently discuss and debate complex issues in a clear and logical way. However she has significant difficulty capturing her thoughts and opinions in written form.
Consequently, although she has been assessed as having above average intelligence, her literacy and numeracy skills are well below national expectations for her year level. Kathryn receives support from an RTLB, who has been investigating using digital technologies to enable her to better demonstrate her learning. Her teacher has been providing her with more time to complete written tasks in class, and he has been exploring her passions and interests in order to motivate her to further develop her literacy and numeracy skills.
Adapting the supports If differentiating the programme is about the "what" of teaching, deciding on adaptations is about the "how". The data were analysed by clustering common themes, tallying stories and ranking responses to uncover the main issues that emerged. The researchers went back to ask the participants to comment on whether they felt the data had been interpreted in a manner congruent with their experiences for confirmation and verification Creswell Ethical considerations Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Fort Hare Ethical Committees, and permission was sought from and granted by the Eastern Cape Education District.
The selected participants were made to sign the informed consent forms as an indication of agreement to participate while the researchers promised to observe the code of ethics. The results of the study are discussed below. Results This study investigated the adaptation of the curriculum for the inclusion of learners with SEN in selected primary schools in the Fort Beaufort District.
This information was sought through interviews with the selected teachers, principals, district officials and provincial official. The following are responses from teachers indicating the various methods that they used in adapting the curriculum to ensure inclusion of all learners. These manifest pockets of very good practice of inclusive education in some schools.
The aim is to make sure they all understand the content. I change the methods, skills in order for them to understand the content and for me to achieve my objectives. I give them homework also in my class to ensure continuity at home. I have three groups.
The first ones are the gifted learners, the second ones are the hard workers, these ones understand and the last group are my slow learners who always need my help.
We have learners up to forty five in the class. It makes it really difficult. Multi-grade is the combination of two or more grades in a classroom. Multi-grade, however, has its own advantage.
For instance slow learners in upper grades sometimes grasp from the lesson teachers teach the lower grades. Most of the principals identified the various methods used by teachers in adapting the curriculum to ensure inclusion of all learners. The use of different teaching strategies, dedication of their time, group work and lowering the bar, for example giving remedial work from lower classes to accommodate all learners, were some of the methods used.
Only P5 seemed not to be really familiar with what was going on in his school. The following was his comment: The staff is basically divided into two groups; we have the experienced teachers and younger ones. Especially, the younger ones struggle to marry ideas and that is because of experience. The elderly feel more comfortable with the learners. It is difficult for me to say exactly how they adapt the curriculum. The following are some comments made in this regard: They come with excuses that this is extra work because curriculum adaptation is about simplifying work and giving work to learners according to their abilities.
If curriculum adaptation is done in schools, learners will be fully supported in schools. There are lots of learners who cannot read and write, we do not know where the problem is, is it with the system or the teachers? They are having learners up to forty-five in the class, it makes it really difficult. Below is his comment: With each new book, students regroup and jobs rotate, but each group sets its own schedule for discussions and assignments.
When Raymond's students come together for whole-class activities, they explore themes common to all of the books, followed by assignments that might require students to create their own short literary work that typifies the genre they have just studied. To help all his students succeed with research papers, Frescoln provides science texts at several reading levels and uses mixed-ability groupings.
Each of five students in a mixed-ability group might research a different cell part by gathering information from books at her own reading level. Then groups split up so that all students with the same cell assignment compare notes and teach one another. Finally, students return to their original groups so that every member of each group can report to the others and learn about the other cell parts.
This approach to differentiation helps motivate all students to push themselves just a little further, he says. To start everyone off on the same foot, DeLuca uses an introductory lab activity that allows the whole class to compare the differing weights of identical volumes of sand and oil.
The object is to determine whether a ship could carry the same amount of sand as it could oil, and how this manifests the property of density. From this starting point, DeLuca assigns students an Internet activity that explores the causes of the sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald—but at different levels of synthesis and analysis, depending on student ability. Homework assignments ask higher-ability students to design cargo boats, grade-level students to float an egg, and below-level students to determine which is more dense: They must perform a water displacement experiment to come up with the correct answer.
All students complete lab reports that DeLuca evaluates using a rubric.
Analytical writing is the most important element of the rubric, but students can earn an A grade as long as they support their conclusions with evidence found in their own particular assignments. The tests DeLuca gives are also differentiated according to the tiered homework and lab activities. The important thing is for everyone to have a certain degree of challenge.
Differentiation and adaptation
Even though this is an honors class, Bushe finds that there is a wide variance in abilities, so he tries to differentiate instruction according to interest, task, and readiness.
He finds that mock trials offer opportunities for all three modes of differentiation. Dividing his class of 30 into three groups of 10, Bushe gives each group a court case involving a legal concept such as beyond a reasonable doubt. Students choose whether to be lawyers, witnesses, or defendants—whichever they feel most comfortable with. Every student has at least two roles, because each trial group also serves as the jury for another trial group.
To prepare for their roles, students must complete individualized reading and writing assignments, but they all learn the basics of trial by jury. One factor of Bushe's mock trials that heightens interest is that each jury deliberates in a fishbowl environment—that is, the rest of the class gets to observe the deliberations but may not speak or interfere. But of course, they can't say anything. But Bushe insists that by differentiating, "you're guaranteeing that more kids will understand what you're doing.
In the face of these challenges, how can an administrator encourage teachers to move in this direction?
Administrators also need to provide "flexibility of funds" so teachers can use a variety of resources and are not stuck with one textbook. But "the critical factor is [sustained] staff development," Allan emphasizes. Three years ago, when she started pitching the idea to elementary teachers, McAdamis met with "terrible resistance.
When McAdamis broached the idea to middle school teachers, "they almost threw me out," she recalls. The teachers objected, saying that they lacked time, that they were dealing with large class sizes, and that differentiation ran counter to the middle school philosophy.
Differentiated instruction is not a form of tracking, Tomlinson states; it is "intended to be the exact opposite. McAdamis notes that some of the middle school teachers who were initially the biggest resisters have become the biggest supporters. One science teacher was dragged into differentiated instruction "kicking and screaming," she says.
Then the teacher tried a tiered activity and was stunned by the outcome. Principals' attitudes and the amount of support they provide are critical. In her district, principals have found money to hire substitutes, allowing teachers to make school visits and do peer coaching. Two staff members from each school took the course, then led staff development activities at their respective schools, he says.
At Riverheads, each teacher was asked to create or modify a unit of instruction in keeping with the principles of differentiated instruction. Bateman gave the teachers feedback on their units, then met with them again after they had taught the units. Bateman also helped develop two sample units—one on oceans, one on regions of the United States—that were given to teachers as a guide.
Through creating these sample units, "we learned a tremendous amount," he says. Similarly, McAdamis has compiled a book of teacher-developed activities and lessons that represent "best practices" in differentiated instruction. A Challenge Worth Meeting No one claims that differentiating instruction is easy.
If kids are not in a place where they can learn, they let us know loud and clear," she says. Teachers are inspired to persevere with differentiated instruction when they see the results, Allan says.
Students are more engaged and make more rapid progress. Bright students are no longer bored, and struggling students are finding learning more accessible—and hence their sense of self-efficacy is rising. In response, "I see veteran teachers becoming energized, and new teachers becoming enormously excited," Allan says.