Religion in India - Wikipedia
While 94% of the world's Hindus live in India, there also are many Muslims, 1 Population Growth of the World's Largest Religions in India Almost four-in-ten Indians (37%) said “communal relations” are a very big problem. "Census of India Data on religion" (PDF). Government of India (Office of the Registrar General). Retrieved Population Growth of the World's Largest Religions in India to grow faster than Hindus because they have the youngest median age and the highest fertility rates among major religious groups in India. Share this link.
Marriage is not dissolved the 1st two times. After the 3rd proclamation there is a waiting period of 3 months during which the maintenance of the wife and children is the responsibility of the husband.
If the differences persist divorce may be finalized after 3 months. At the time of parting he has to give her the promised mehr or dowry and supplementary ways to support herself and children. After the third proclamation if the man wishes to marry the same woman again, it is permissible only after she has consummated a marriage with another man. Also if a husband creates hindrances in a woman following her religious duties or believing in Allah, she can ask for divorce. Homosexuality is looked down upon and is strictly prohibited.
If a sexual relationship has occurred beyond the set confines of marriage both the ones involved are to be given lashes. No sexual intercourse permitted during fasting, menstruation, postpartum puerperal discharge and religious pilgrimage haj and umrah. It is not for true believers men or women to take their choice in the affairs if God and His apostle decree otherwise. He that disobeys God and his apostle strays far indeed Quran Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul toward divine consciousness and liberation.
Moksha liberation from an endless succession of lives through reincarnation is achieved by enlightenment.
This Moksha can be attained only through asceticism. Jainism is based on three general principles called the three Ratnas jewels. Right faith, right knowledge and right action. Jains are recommended to pass through four stages during their lifetime viz. Unlike the Hindus who look upon marriage as a sacrament, Jains treat the institution as a contract.
Friendship and marriage is considered to be a worldly affair and marriage is recommended so that the children born to the couple would also follow the same dharma religion.
Its purpose is to make sex licit within a family. The role of sex between husband and wife is strictly procreational, so that its engagement is limited to the ovulation period.
They criticize the practice of dowry. Jainism sets celibacy-chaste living Bramacharya as the norm. The highest ideals of classical or traditional Jainism are represented by the ascetics-the members of the faith who devote their whole lives to living the Jain code of ethics in its strictest forms. Jain monks and nuns are expected to remain completely celibate in body and mind.
Chaste living is important to Jains because sexual indulgence gets in the way of the road to liberation. Jain monks and nuns practice strict asceticism and strive to make their current birth their last, thus ending their cycle of transmigration. Sexual passion is so powerful that it can overcome rational thinking and ethically right behavior-thus producing bad karma deeds. The basic intent of this vow is to conquer passion, thus preventing wastage of energy in the direction of pleasurable desires.
The monks have a realistic understanding of the power of sex and are counseled against its indulgence through suggestive literature, sexual fantasies and intimacy.
They do not think about sex and avoid remembering sexual incidents before they became monks. Jains must have sex only with the person they are married to. Jains must avoid sexual indulgence even with that person. Jains must give up sex, if possible, after the marriage has yielded a son.
The householder must be content with his own wife and must consider all other women as his sisters, mothers and daughters. Some Jain writers suggest that even married people should not over-indulge in sexual activities, and have argued that the principle of chaste living will help in population control. Chaste living also requires Jains to avoid sex before marriage, and to avoid sexual thoughts.
They should not look at pornography or sexually stimulating material, so that they can retain a clear mind, unclouded by desire.
Sexual deviations are to be avoided, including contact with lower animals and inanimate objects. There is a strong awareness among the world's Parsi Zoroastrian community about the threats against their religion and race. Many reformists believe changing the belief that one has to be born a Parsi to be considered a Parsi.
The rule has been relaxed for Parsi fathers and non-Parsi mothers but is rigid for the opposite that is Parsi mothers and non-Parsi fathers, whose children are not allowed or accepted into the faith. However according to Special Marriages Act it permits person marrying outside the community to continue practicing their religion.
The reason for interfaith marriage being stated as lack of housing for young Parsi couples, Parsi boys not being adequately educated to the same extent as Parsi girls. Love is blind and it should not make no any difference who marries whom specially in this day and age.
By 2050, India to have world’s largest populations of Hindus and Muslims
Besides, Parsi women are financially and emotionally independent, well-educated and individualistic in their views. These claims are, however, refuted stating lack of housing not only affects Parsis but other communities as well.
A boy from another community is not in any way superior to a Parsi boy and that prime cause for interfaith marriages is the callous, irresponsible, indifferent attitude of some members of the community. On the other hand, city's young Parsis are attending speed dating sessions and get together to meet prospective life partners.
Other issues affecting Parsi marriages is Parsis marrying late, with drop in fertility rates. The average age for Parsi men being 31 and for women being At the same time some Parsi couples marry in haste and separate early. Marrying within such a small community may result in genetic diseases like haemophilia, osteoporosis and cancer. Some orthodox views of Zoroastrianism on sexual orientation are that homosexuality is considered evil. Almost 30 million Sikhs followers of Sikhism constitute the community currently.
The religion originated in undivided Punjab, in North India, founded by a visionary thought leader, Guru Nanak Dev in the fifteenth century.
The religion believes in truthful living. It upheld the ideal of equality, preaching that all men are equal with no discrimination based on caste or gender, in an era when such inequalities were rampant in the society. Guru Nanak spread the message of love and understanding and was against the rituals that were being followed blindly by the Hindus and the Muslims.
He was succeeded by nine more gurus over the next three centuries, the last being Guru Gobind Singh, who died in Some of the popular teachings of Guru Nanak are: Dharam di Kirat Karni working and earning by the sweat of the brow, to live a life and practice truthfulness, and honesty, in all dealings respectively.
Vand Ke Chhakna To share the fruits of one's labor with others, before considering oneself. Rituals, religious ceremonies, fasting, idol worship, or going on pilgrimages, forceful conversion to Sikhism are discouraged in Sikhism. When a child is born in a Sikh family, it is named using the first letter of top left corner of the left page of the Guru Granth Sahib the holy book of Sikhs opened randomly.
In fact, Guru Nanak Dev fought fervently for women's rights during his life time and proclaimed them to be equal to men using the following argument: With a woman, he is betrothed and married; with a woman, he contracts friendship. Why say she is inferior, the one from who even kings are born? Without woman, there would be no one at all.
In accordance with his other teachings, Guru Nanak had also condemned various cultural practices, which were derogatory to the status of women in the society, such as Sati, Dowry System in Gurbani a collection of Guru's teachings.
Not only this, the Sikhs have also historically treated the women captured in battles with respect, considering them as their own sisters. As an example, the religion permits widow remarriage while does not permit other derogatory customs such as the dowry and the purdah systems.
Census of India: Religion
The only prerequisite, however, is that both the partners have to be Sikhs. The religion believes that all days are the same and are as holy and pious as any other day.
The religion does not allow for the wedding to take place at a commercial location such as a hotel or a banquet hall. The Sikh marriage is a monogamous affair and separation per SE is not allowed.
However, divorce can be obtained in civil court of law. The marriage process involves taking four revolutions around the Guru Granth Sahib with the recitation of laavan hymns in the background.
Hence, this ritual of revolving around the Granth signifies the newly wed couple making commitments in the presence of their Guru. In terms of law, the Sikh marriages are legalized by the Sikh Marriage Act ofwhich has been amended in and passed in parliament.
To conclude, Sikhism, being the youngest religions, has a strong value system that believes in bringing reforms in the society by opposing all the malpractices and proclaiming equal rights for both the sexes as individuals as well as when in a wedlock.
The word gender in the scholarly community has become a politically correct synonym for the study of women.
Gender, however, does not refer simply to the study of women, but to the manner in which male and female differences are socially constructed. In anthropological studies, there has been a general move away in anthropological studies from attempts to formulate universal categories of gender. The criteria for analyzing gendered categories and social status vary cross-culturally. Western definitions of gender tend to group humans into two distinct static categories based upon the physical appearance of genitalia.
However, this construction is not universal. South Asian gender definitions emphasize the different essences or humor attributed to men and women as opposed to the overt physical emphasis of the western world. Humors are present more or less strongly in every food or body tissue.
Women are seen to possess different proportions of these humors than men. These humors are combined through the process of mixing. Mixing occurs most frequently in bodies that are more open and less closed-off to the intrusion of other elements and humors. It is better to be more closed, for this limit the effects of pollution upon the body.
Women are possessing the humor of hotness, more so than men, and they are also defined as more open. It is this combination of essences that is linked to their reproductive ability. These essences, however, are not static categories but change over the course of a life-time there-by changing an individual's status as a gendered being.
Despite the acknowledgment of that gender is constructed differently in South Asia than in the West, there has been little analysis of the variations in gender definitions within South Asia. In Indian culture according to anthropological gender scholars the experience of women within gender definitions has generated a universal picture of the Indian woman. The portrait of the Indian woman is typically based upon the experience of upper-class women in more Northern regions of India.
Wadley, positions the meaning of gender in India within a paradigm of order and disorder. Women as a gender must be controlled because of their capacity to create disorder within society. Influenced by Sanskrit texts, many Brahmans feel that women lack wisdom and are born with many demerits, however, women also have great power.
They have power both to give life as well as a great capacity for destruction. Women's resistance has the power to disrupt the patriarchal order of the society. The power of women is strongly linked to sexuality. Women, as objects of sexual attraction that are attributed a much higher capacity and desire for sexual relations than men, have the power to influence and dissuade men from a higher purpose. Inappropriate sexual relations can create dire consequences for men.
Therefore, to perpetuate order and merit within society, it is necessary to reign and control the power of women through restrictions on her sexuality. This model shows that women are not simply silent victims of an oppressive gender system, but are afforded a certain amount of power in society.
Their power is derived from their capacity to resist the prescribed social order of Brahmanical traditions and patriarchal hierarchy.
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Such constructions of gender and sexuality as potential disruptions to a patriarchal framework become problematic when applied to groups without such a strict patriarchal frame work.
In Kerala, the social hierarchy is not formed upon strict patriarchal schemes. Many castes are in fact matrilineal, in which women become binding forces within society. Women play a pivotal role in creating social order, not simply disrupting it. Women, however, are not simply defined by their gender as women, but also by their age. What it means to be female changes over time, as the body of a woman changes over time. During her reproductive years, women are particularly vulnerable to pollution and must therefore be protected and often confined in Brahman families.
A woman's status in Bengal is directly linked to her position within the reproductive cycle, and is tied to the bodily changes of puberty, menstruation and menopause.
Once a woman has passed her sexually active years, she no longer has to be regulated to a great extent. In essence, she becomes more like a man and does not need to be protected from pollution. A women's capacity for creating disorder is linked in large part to their reproductive capacity and her nature as a sexualized being.
A woman derives power, both creative and destructive from her reproductive capacity. As such, it is during this time that she faces regulations governing her sexual behavior. The status of women, however is not a strict gender formation, but a fluid category, which alters with age as well as caste status.
The changes in gender status throughout age are strongly linked to changes in her reproductive capacity and depiction as a sexualized being. Today though with modernism and newer view-points a large number of older views are dwindling away and a modern and flexible outlook over sexuality has taken over. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: Aldine de Gruyter; A Treatise on the Family.
Hinduism is world's third largest religion after Christianity and Islam. Hinduism is the dominant religion in India, where Hindus form about 84 per cent of the total population. Hinduism is also known as "Sanatan Dharma" or the everlasting religion. Islam One of the prominent religions of India, Islam forms about 12 per cent of India's population. Though India's contact with Islam had begun much earlier, the real push came in the 8th century when the province of Sindh was conquered.
Though the Muslims form only 12 per cent of the total population of India but the influence of Islam on Indian society is much stronger. Jainism Jains form less than one percent of the Indian population. For centuries, Jains are famous as community of traders and merchants.
The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan have the highest concentration of Jain population in India. Sikhism Sikhs form about 2 per cent of Indian population. In comparison to other religions, Sikhism is a younger religion. The word 'Sikh' means a disciple and thus Sikhism is essentially the path of discipleship. The true Sikh remains unattached to worldly things. Zoroastrian Though the total number of Zoroastrians in Indian population is very less yet they continue to be one of the important religious communities of India.
According to the census, there were around 70, members of the Zoroastrian faith in India. He was the first Guru of the Sikhs and is worshipped next to God.
His sole aim in life was to unify the Hindus and Muslims and form a universal religion of brotherhood and compassion.