Students will take a closer look at the sun and begin to recognize its critical function in Among other things, the sun provides the earth and its inhabitants the light and heat they need Encourage and accept all student responses so they can develop their ideas and awareness about heat variations in relation to the sun. Skill: Patterns/Relationships of Earth/Sun Systems. Science Grade 4. This test section contains EIGHT multiple-choice and ONE open-response (short-answer) . plore the relationship between our home planet and its most familiar about how Earth, Moon, and Sun work together as a system. .. cabulary as they respond to the writing prompt you assign. . left open for brainstorming and outlining prior.
It is also the largest object in the solar system. What kinds of things does the sun do? Among other things, the sun provides the earth and its inhabitants the light and heat they need to grow and survive. What kinds of things does the sun allow you to do every day? Development Continue the lesson by distributing the Warmth Chart to your students. To aid in their comprehension, read over the chart carefully with the class explaining that they will go to three different areas—the classroom, the outside in the shade, and in the sun—and try to determine or feel the differences in warmth in each of the areas.
To do this, they will need pencils and will have to circle the level of warmth in each area—cold, cool, warm, or hot. Starting in the classroom, ask students these basic questions before they finally decide on what they believe is the relative warmth or coolness temperature of the room. How warm or cold does it feel in the classroom?
Is the heat of the sun helping to warm this area? Why or why not? Encourage and accept all student responses so they can develop their ideas and awareness about heat variations in relation to the sun.
Questions and Answers About the Sun | High Altitude Observatory
When they have finished expressing themselves, close each of the three area discussions with the following directive: Now it is time to circle the answer on the Warmth Chart that you feel is correct. Ask them summarizing questions similar to these: How many of you thought the classroom was the warmest? How many of you thought the shade was the coolest? How many of you thought being in the sun was the warmest?
Were you surprised by any of your answers? Accept all answers, but ask students to support their views with explanations. After taking time to field their responses, you and your students should be warming up in the sun. As a way to transition into the water-pan, touch-and-test part of the lesson, draw your students' attention to the warmth they're feeling now by asking questions like these: So, after standing in the sun for a few minutes, how do you feel now?
Do you think things like rocks, grass, leaves, water, or air are cooler or warmer in the sun? If they were taken indoors? If the sun warms people, do you think it warms all of these other things as well? After students have made these types of broader connections, walk them over to the water pan that you have left outside in the sun. Ask them these orientation questions before you have them touch the water with their hands: Do you think the water in the pan is cold, cool, warm, or hot?
If I put this pan in the shade, do you think it would change the warmth of the water? How about if I took it inside and put it on my desk? When finished, have students touch the water one-by-one. Make this activity as scientific as appropriate for your students. This may involve letting your more advanced students use thermometers to gauge the degree of warmth or coolness of the water.
Then ask questions like these: How does the water feel? Are you surprised by the warmth of the water?
Imagine that the pan was filled with leaves or soil or even air. How do you think that would affect the warmth of those items? To address their own personal warming processes while standing in the sun, you may ask them questions like these before taking them back to the classroom: In this lesson you will learn about how the movements of the Earth, Moon, and Sun affect different phenomena on Earth, including day and night, the seasons, tides, and phases of the Moon.
Describe how Earth's movements affect seasons and cause day and night. Explain solar and lunar eclipses. Describe the phases of the Moon and explain why they occur. Explain how movements of the Earth and Moon affect Earth's tides.
The Warmth of the Sun - Science NetLinks
Explain how the earth, sun and moon interact with each other to create the moons phases Positions and movements[ edit ] Earlier we discussed Earth's rotation and revolution. The Earth rotates once on its axis about every 24 hours. If you were to look at Earth from the North Pole, it would be spinning counterclockwise.
As the Earth rotates, observers on Earth see the Sun moving across the sky from east to west with the beginning of each new day. We often say that the Sun is "rising" or "setting", but actually it is the Earth's rotation that gives us the perception of the Sun rising up or setting over the horizon.
The Warmth of the Sun
When we look at the Moon or the stars at night, they also seem to rise in the east and set in the west. Earth's rotation is also responsible for this.
As Earth turns, the Moon and stars change position in our sky.
Earth's Day and Night[ edit ] Another effect of Earth's rotation is that we have a cycle of daylight and darkness approximately every 24 hours. This is called a day. As Earth rotates, the side of Earth facing the Sun experiences daylight, and the opposite side facing away from the Sun experiences darkness or night time. Since the Earth completes one rotation in about 24 hours, this is the time it takes to complete one day-night cycle. As the Earth rotates, different places on Earth experience sunset and sunrise at a different time.
As you move towards the poles, summer and winter days have different amounts of daylight hours in a day. For example, in the Northern hemisphere, we begin summer on June At this point, the Earth's North Pole is pointed directly toward the Sun. Therefore, areas north of the equator experience longer days and shorter nights because the northern half of the Earth is pointed toward the Sun. Since the southern half of the Earth is pointed away from the Sun at that point, they have the opposite effect—longer nights and shorter days.
For people in the Northern hemisphere, winter begins on December At this point, it is Earth's South Pole that is tilted toward the Sun, and so there are shorter days and longer nights for those who are north of the equator. Earth's Seasons[ edit ] It is a common misconception that summer is warm and winter is cold because the Sun is closer to Earth in the summer and farther away from it during the winter.
Remember that seasons are caused by the This results in one part of the Earth being more directly exposed to rays from the Sun than the other part.
The part tilted away from the Sun experiences a cool season, while the part tilted toward the Sun experiences a warm season. Seasons change as the Earth continues its revolution, causing the hemisphere tilted away from or towards the Sun to change accordingly. When it is winter in the Northern hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern hemisphere, and vice versa.
The Earth's tilt on its axis leads to one hemisphere facing the Sun more than the other hemisphere and gives rise to seasons.
Solar Eclipses[ edit ] Figure A solar eclipse occurs when the new moon passes directly between the Earth and the Sun Figure This casts a shadow on the Earth and blocks our view of the Sun.
A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow completely blocks the Sun Figure When only a portion of the Sun is out of view, it is called a partial solar eclipse. Solar eclipses are rare events that usually only last a few minutes. That is because the Moon's shadow only covers a very small area on Earth and Earth is turning very rapidly. As the Sun is covered by the moon's shadow, it will actually get cooler outside. Birds may begin to sing, and stars will become visible in the sky.
During a solar eclipse, the corona and solar prominences can be seen. Photo of a total solar eclipse. During a solar eclipse, never look directly towards the sun even if the sun cannot be seen, as its harmful rays can damage your eyes badly.
Always use special glasses which filter out the harmful sun rays when seeing a solar eclipse. A Lunar Eclipse[ edit ] A lunar eclipse occurs when the full moon moves through the shadow of the Earth Figure This can only happen when the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun and all three are lined up in the same plane, called the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. The Earth's shadow has two distinct parts: The umbra is the inner, cone shaped part of the shadow, in which all of the light has been blocked.
The outer part of Earth's shadow is the penumbra where only part of the light is blocked. In the penumbra, the light is dimmed but not totally absent. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon travels completely in Earth's umbra. The Earth's shadow is quite large, so a lunar eclipse lasts for hours and can be seen by anyone with a view of the Moon at the time of the eclipse.
The formation of a lunar eclipse. Partial lunar eclipses occur at least twice a year, but total lunar eclipses are less common. The moon glows with a dull red coloring during a total lunar eclipse.
The Phases of the Moon[ edit ] The Moon does not produce any light of its own—it only reflects light from the Sun. As the Moon moves around the Earth, we see different parts of the near side of the Moon illuminated by the Sun.
This causes the changes in the shape of the Moon that we notice on a regular basis, called the phases of the Moon.