What is the significance of the Dambusters legend? – Military History Monthly
Apr 30, GETTY. Peter Jackson declared he was going to remake The Dam Busters . If her relationship with Prince Harry doesn't end in marriage, then. Her relationship with Croom is platonic, because she makes it clear that, after Corven, she has no interest in romantic love. But Corven has them followed by. May 17, The racist name of a dog in The Dam Busters will not be censored in new screenings of the film, which has been restored to mark the 75th.
Only in was a statue to Bomber Harris erected. The statue had to be guarded for a while because it became a target of iconoclasts. This is dedicated to the aircrew who lost their lives, but some see it as a monument to the destruction of some German cities and the killing of up toGerman civilians in the strategic bombing offensive. The men of Bomber Command One thing should be clear.
Bomber Command aircrew who lost their lives were victims of war as deserving of remembrance and respect as any others. They did what they were ordered to do and they paid a terrible price. The casualty rate was astronomical.
The Bomber Command norm was area bombing of enemy cities on a mass scale using crude air-dropped munitions. A standard tour was 30 operations. But standard losses on a raid were one aircraft in So the odds were that you would not survive a tour. At the height of the Bomber Offensive, in the middle ofHarris lost half his entire aircrew in just three months.
Overall, of the men who flew Bomber Command operations during the Second World War, two out of three were killed. Little wonder the stench of human fear filled the cockpits when ground-crew cleaned up after a raid. It was comparable with that suffered by British soldiers on the Somme and at Passchendaele during the First World War.
And it is the job of the historian to ask such questions. Some defend the strategic bombing offensive on the basis that the Second World War was a total war in which the deliberate destruction of German infrastructure, industry, and manpower was necessary to defeat the Nazi regime.
No-one celebrates the destruction of cities or the mass killing of civilians.
The Dam Busters (film) - Wikipedia
But some do argue that there was no alternative. I think this argument is false, and for three reasons. First, the resources dedicated to the Bomber Offensive would have been better dedicated to other ways of war — that is, the strategic bombing campaign represented a failure to apply the military principle of economy of force.
Third, area bombing turned German civilians mainly the working-class communities of industrial cities that had never supported the Nazis into targets and enemies, making it less likely not, as Harris maintained, more likely that they would turn on the regime in the way that ordinary Germans had done at the end of the First World War. Clausewitz and the strategic bomber The most effective way to win a modern industrialised war is to engage in a battle of attrition with the armed forces of the enemy and to grind them down until they are no longer capable of effective resistance.
The truth of this simple Clausewitzian dictum has been proved in practice again and again. The implication is not that battles must take a form like Passchendaele, Stalingrad, or Normandy: What matters is that it is the armed forces of the enemy that are the primary object of military action.
The Russians proved this. It was the massive losses suffered in the fighting on the Eastern Front between late and mid that broke the power of the Wehrmacht. Inflated statistical claims for damage and destruction streamed forth.Dambusters main theme song / tune / anthem / soundtrack
Bomber Command statisticians conjured a mathematical relationship between the areas of devastation visible on photos and loss of German war production. In February it was being claimed that a million man-years of production had been lost, representing an average return of 20, man-hours lost for every ton of bombs dropped.
The politics of airpower The fixation with strategic bombing was political. Again, Clausewitz is our guide, with his insistence on the relationship between society, policy, and war. The interwar period was the great age of airpower prophets.
It was the brash confidence, the bragging certainty, of a johnny-come-lately military vested interest: What of the politico-military top brass? What of Churchill, the leader of an embattled island-nation fighting on alone against a Nazi empire straddling Europe? He could ill-afford boggle-eyed hype about the potential of the bomber when resources were so scarce and the dangers mortal.
The evidence is that Churchill was never wholly convinced, but that he had priorities of his own that bound him in a close embrace with the deranged leadership of Bomber Command. After the defeat of France, Britain was under direct attack, yet seemed to lack effective means of hitting back. The Churchill government, moreover, was new and insecure — it was that of a bellicose maverick foisted on the nation in a dark hour of defeat and foreboding.
The politics of the moment demanded military retaliation, and the bombers offered Churchill a way to strike at Germany itself. Area bombing That the bomber could win the war singlehanded was a constant refrain. Then to Churchill, in November the same year: It will cost between and aircraft. It will cost Germany the war.
Pre-war claims about the accuracy with which bombers could strike targets evaporated in the darkness of the night once operations were under way. Many bomber crews missed the city they were looking for, never mind specific industrial installations within it.
Rival teams of scientists were soon engaged in a techno-war that continued untilon one side devising navigational aids, target markers, and bomb sights to increase accuracy, on the other developing the jammers, decoys, and air-defence systems to protect key targets. Eventually, as German airpower degraded towards the end of the war, the balance of advantage shifted to the Allies, and precision bombing of ball-bearings factories, synthetic oil plants, and electric power stations showed real promise.
The aircraft, four of the final production B. A number of Avro Lincoln bombers were also used as "set dressing". The Upper Derwent Valley in Derbyshire the test area for the real raids doubled as the Ruhr valley for the film.
Additional aerial footage was shot above Windermerein the Lake District. An Avro Lancaster B. VII modified for the film with cut-out bomb bay and mock bouncing bomb demonstrating to a crowd at Coventry Airport in While RAF Scamptonwhere the real raid launched, was used for some scenes, the principal airfield used for ground location shooting was RAF Hemswella few miles north and still an operational RAF station at the time of filming.
Guy Gibson had been based at Hemswell in his final posting and the airfield had been an operational Avro Lancaster base during the war. At the time filming took place it was then home to No.
However, part of the RAF's fleet of ageing Avro Lincolns had been mothballed at Hemswell prior to being broken up and several of these static aircraft appeared in background shots during filming, doubling for additional No Squadron Lancasters. The station headquarters building still stands on what is now an industrial estate and is named Gibson House.
The four wartime hangars also still stand, little changed in external appearance since the war. Three of the four Lancaster bombers used in the film had also appeared in the Dirk Bogarde film Appointment in London two years earlier.
There is no reference in the film's credits to who the dancers were. The Dam Busters March The Dam Busters March by Eric Coatesis for many synonymous with the film, as well as with the exploit itself, and remains a favourite military band item at flypasts and in the concert hall.
Other than the introduction and trio section theme, the majority of the march as performed is not featured in the film soundtrack. Coates himself avoided writing music for the cinema, having been advised against it by Edward Elgarand he only agreed to provide an overture for the film after he was persuaded by the film's producers it was of "national importance" and pressure was put on him via his publisher, Chappell.
A march he had recently completed was found to fit well with the heroic subject and was thus submitted. ITV blamed regional broadcaster London Weekend Televisionwhich in turn alleged that a junior staff member had been responsible for the unauthorised cuts. When ITV again showed a censored version in Juneit was condemned by the Index on Censorship as "unnecessary and ridiculous" and because the edits introduced continuity errors.
Last surviving Dambusters pilot, Les Munro, dies aged 96
The original, uncensored, version was also shown on 1 and 5 Januaryby the British broadcaster Channel 5. It was the version, distributed by Studio Canal, containing shots of the bomber flying into a hill. Historical accuracy[ edit ] A bomb aimer prepares to drop his bouncing bomb using an improvised device to determine the correct distance from the dam.
The film is largely historically accurate, with only a small number of changes made for reasons of dramatic licence. Some errors derive from Paul Brickhill's book, which was written when much detail about the raid was not yet in the public domain. Barnes Wallis said that he never encountered any opposition from bureaucracy. In the film, when a reluctant official asks what he can possibly say to the RAF to persuade them to lend a Vickers Wellington bomber for flight testing the bomb, Wallis suggests: Instead of all of Gibson's tour-expired crew at Squadron volunteering to follow him to his new command, only his wireless operator, Hutchinson, went with him to Squadron.
Rather than the purpose as well as the method of the raid being Wallis's sole idea, the dams had already been identified as an important target by the Air Ministry before the war.
Gibson did not devise the spotlights altimeter after visiting a theatre; it was suggested by Benjamin Lockspeiser of the Ministry of Aircraft Production after Gibson requested they solve the problem. No bomber flew into a hillside near a target on the actual raid. This scene, which is not in the original version, was included in the copy released on the North American market see above.
Three bombers are brought down by enemy fire and two crashed due to hitting power lines in the valleys. This version of the weapon was never used operationally. At the time the film was made, certain aspects of Upkeep were still held classified, so the actual test footage was censored to hide any details of the test bombs a black dot was superimposed over the bomb on each frameand the dummy bombs carried by the Lancasters were almost spherical but with flat sides rather than the true cylindrical shape.
The dummy bomb did not show the mechanism which created the back spin. Ammunition shown being loaded into a Lancaster is. The scenes of the attack on the Eder Dam show a castle resembling Schloss Waldeck on the wrong side of the lake and dam. The position and angle of the lake in relation to the castle suggest that in reality the bombing-run would have needed a downhill approach to the west of the castle.
Wallis states that his idea came from Nelson's bouncing cannonballs into the sides of enemy ships.