# What is the relationship of electricity and matter

### Static Electricity 1: Introducing Atoms - Science NetLinks

tion of Faraday's ideas on electricity and the nature of matter. 6 See J. Brookes Spencer, "Boscovich's Theory and its Relation to Faraday's Researches. An understanding of static electricity must begin with the concept that all matter is composed of atoms, and all atoms are composed of subatomic particles among. electrons produce a magnetic field, and spinning magnets cause an electric current to magnetism, and the relationship between the two, are fundamental to the workings of . the property of matter that causes it to be electrically positive or .

## Electricity and Matter

After students have explored the resources, lead them through a discussion of the questions they answered on their student sheets: What makes the elements in the Periodic Table different? Each element has a different number of electrons, protons, and neutrons. What is the name for the center of the atom containing the protons and neutrons?

Nucleus What kind of electrical charge do protons, electrons, and neutrons have?

### What is Electricity?

Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge, and neutrons do not have any charge. What does it mean if an entire atom has a neutral charge? It has the same number of protons and electrons. Describe the movement of the electrons. The electrons move in a random orbit.

• What is Electricity?

What can happen to the atomic particles when you rub two objects together? It is possible to transfer some of the outer electrons from one object to another.

What happens to an object that loses electrons? An object that loses electrons has a deficiency of electrons, leaving it positively charged. What happens to an object that gains electrons? An object that gains electrons is negatively charged. What happens when an object with a positive charge and an object with a negative charge are near each other? The two objects will attract each other because of the electric force between them. What causes the particles of the atom to stay together?

The particles have opposite electrical charges and are attracted to each other, causing the particles of the atom to stay together. Students should be able to explain that all matter is made up of atoms that are so small they can only be seen with special microscopes.

In each atom there is a nucleus that consists of neutrons and protons. Electrons move around the nucleus. Ask students to draw a picture of an atom and to label the parts. Students should be able to draw an atom and label the nucleus, protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Matter and Energy

We studied matter in the Chemistry unit; it is everything that we can touch, smell, taste, and see. Energy is the ability to do work and it comes in many different forms.

## How Electricity Works

Forms of energy include: In order to study electricity, we have to take one more look at matter. Do you remember what three particles make up an atom?

Protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus center core of the atom while electrons spin in energy levels called orbits or shells around the nucleus. Since electrons are not firmly held to the nucleus, they have the ability to leave atoms. When electrons leave atoms, matter becomes charged.

When electrons are made to flow, electricity is generated. There are two types of electricity: Break something down to small enough pieces and you wind up with a nucleus orbited by one or more electrons, each with a negative charge.

### Electricity and Matter - SchoolWorkHelper

In many materials, the electrons are tightly bound to the atoms. Wood, glass, plastic, ceramic, air, cotton -- these are all examples of materials in which electrons stick with their atoms. Because these atoms are so reluctant to share electrons, these materials can't conduct electricity very well, if at all. These materials are electrical insulators. Most metals, however, have electrons that can detach from their atoms and zip around.

These are called free electrons.