Money supply - Wikipedia
A look at the ways central banks pump or drain money from the economy to keep it healthy. Why don!t central banks control the money supply? .. in relation to demand deposits, as U.S. banks did of the relations between money and business that. Basic Concepts, Government Policy, Macroeconomics, Money and Banking Including some types of savings deposits, the money supply totaled $6, billion.
Borrowers want to borrow relatively larger amounts. Savers and borrowers also want to save and borrow for varying lengths of time.
Banks repackage the small savings into larger amounts for borrowers and offer desirable durations to borrowers and savers. Banks cope with Asymmetric Information. Borrowers have incentive not to report history correctly if it is bad. The economy is more efficient because banks develop expertise in evaluating borrowers, structuring loans, and enforcing loan contracts. Banks reduce risk through diversification.
By developing a diversified portfolio of assets rather than lending funds to a single borrower, banks reduce the risk to each saver. The Narrow Definition of Money: M1 is regarded as money because it serves as a medium of exchange, unit of account and a store of value.
Checkable deposits — Deposits in financial institutions against which checks can be written Checkable deposits are liabilities of the issuing banks. Currency sitting in bank vaults is not included as part of the money supply, because it is not being used as a medium of exchange. Checkable deposits are money because their owners can write checks against them.
Federal Reserve Notes are liabilities of the Federal Reserve. Printed by the U. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. They can only be exchanged for more currency, so they are fiat money. Coins are manufactured and distributed by the U. They are token coins. Broader Money Aggregates Some kinds of assets perform the store-of-value function.
Some can be converted into currency or checkable deposits.
So these are included under broader definitions of money. Savings deposits — Deposits that earn interest but have no specific maturity date Time deposits — Deposits that earn a fixed rate of interest if held for the specified period, which can range anywhere from several months to several years.
Money market mutual funds — A collection of short-term interest-earning assets purchased with funds collected from many shareholders M2 — A monetary aggregate consisting of M1 plus savings deposits, small-denomination time deposits, and money market mutual funds M3 — A monetary aggregate consisting of M2 plus large-denomination time deposits The difference between M1 and M2 becomes less meaningful when banks allow depositors to transfer money between one account and another.
Credit cards are not considered money. This kind of policy reduces or increases the supply of short term government debt in the hands of banks and the non-bank public, lowering or raising interest rates.
In parallel, it increases or reduces the supply of loanable funds money and thereby the ability of private banks to issue new money through issuing debt.
The simple connection between monetary policy and monetary aggregates such as M1 and M2 changed in the s as the reserve requirements on deposits started to fall with the emergence of money fundswhich require no reserves. Then in the early s, reserve requirements, for example in Canadawere dropped to zero  on savings depositsCDsand Eurodollar deposit.
Role of Commercial Banks in Money Supply
At present, reserve requirements apply only to " transactions deposits " — essentially checking accounts. The vast majority of funding sources used by private banks to create loans are not limited by bank reserves.
Most commercial and industrial loans are financed by issuing large denomination CDs. Money market deposits are largely used to lend to corporations who issue commercial paper. Consumer loans are also made using savings depositswhich are not subject to reserve requirements. This means that instead of the value of loans supplied responding passively to monetary policy, we often see it rising and falling with the demand for funds and the willingness of banks to lend.
Some economists argue that the money multiplier is a meaningless concept, because its relevance would require that the money supply be exogenousi. If central banks usually target the shortest-term interest rate as their policy instrument then this leads to the money supply being endogenous. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.What's all the Yellen About? Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Crash Course Economics #10
March Neither commercial nor consumer loans are any longer limited by bank reserves. Nor are they directly linked proportional to reserves. Between andthe value of consumer loans has steadily increased out of proportion to bank reserves. Then, as part of the financial crisis, bank reserves rose dramatically as new loans shrank. In recent years, some academic economists renowned for their work on the implications of rational expectations have argued that open market operations are irrelevant.
These include Robert Lucas, Jr.
Chapter 14 Banking and the Money Supply
KydlandEdward C. Prescott and Scott Freeman. Keynesian economists point to the ineffectiveness of open market operations in in the United States, when short-term interest rates went as low as they could go in nominal terms, so that no more monetary stimulus could occur.
This zero bound problem has been called the liquidity trap or " pushing on a string " the pusher being the central bank and the string being the real economy. Arguments[ edit ] Historically, in Europe, the main function of the central bank is to maintain low inflation. In the USA the focus is on both inflation and unemployment.
A central bank may attempt to do this by artificially influencing the demand for goods by increasing or decreasing the nation's money supply relative to trendwhich lowers or raises interest rates, which stimulates or restrains spending on goods and services.
An important debate among economists in the second half of the twentieth century concerned the central bank's ability to predict how much money should be in circulation, given current employment rates and inflation rates. Economists such as Milton Friedman believed that the central bank would always get it wrong, leading to wider swings in the economy than if it were just left alone.
The former Chairman of the U. Federal Reserve, Ben Bernankesuggested in that over the preceding 10 to 15 years, many modern central banks became relatively adept at manipulation of the money supply, leading to a smoother business cycle, with recessions tending to be smaller and less frequent than in earlier decades, a phenomenon termed " The Great Moderation "  This theory encountered criticism during the global financial crisis of —