Humayun - Wikipedia
Babar ruled until , and was succeeded by his son Humayun. However, relations with Sikhs were strained, and the fifth of the ten Sikh gurus, Arjun Dev, was executed at The Mughal Empire was at its zenith during Shah Jahan's rule . In this article we will discuss about the development of Mughal architecture in India of foreign countries with which India had established relations had, no doubt, Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India spent most of his time in. Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of emperor Shāh Jahān The architectural monuments of Shāh Jahān's successor, Aurangzeb (reigned.
Akbar succeeded to the throne at 13, and started to recapture the remaining territory lost from Babur's empire. By the time of his death in he ruled over most of north, central, and western India. Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders. While this may well have been for political reasons - he married a Hindu princess and is said to have married several thousand wives for political and diplomatic purposes - it was also a part of his philosophy.
Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believers equally, whatever their belief. He established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory. Akbar's government machine included many Hindus in positions of responsibility - the governed were allowed to take a major part in the governing.
Akbar also ended a tax jizya that had been imposed on non-Muslims. This discriminatory tax had been much resented, and ending it was a popular move. An innovation was the amount of autonomy he allowed to the provinces. The storeys above the ground become smaller and smaller diminishing in size as the tomb ascends higher.
The lowest storey is well-built and masculine, while the storey at the top is smaller in size and famine.
BBC - Religions - Islam: Mughal Empire (s, s)
The jails used in this building have intricate geometrical design intertwined with the Hindu swastika. He built a new city of Shahdara near Lahore around his mausoleum. In the fort he also constructed Moti Masjid which was mainly meant for the ladies of the Harem. This building is chaste, simple and majestic with finely swelling domes of marble.
It has a court-yard of 50 feet by 33 feet foe worship and the entire floor is made of white marble. This building marked a transition between the red sandstone cum marble constructions of Akbar and Jahangir, and the pure marble creations of Shah Jahan. Sherwani, this building became the forerunner of the Taj. It has opened up new vistas for the assimilation of different styles into one system. But it has certain striking characteristics of its own. Smith does not consider this work as a striking piece of architecture but even he admits that it possesses a rare beauty.
The mausoleum is built on a square platform of a reddish freestone, it has a spacious entrance through a handsome gateway of marble and enamel.
The whole structure is surrounded with corridors, and rooms for the use of visitors. The corridors are decorated with profuse marble ornaments. This monument is built of brick in the form of octagon supporting a bulb dome of the same material. Architecture under Shah Jahan: During the time of Shah Jahair a perfect assimilation of the Hindu and Muslim architecture took place. He made use of Makrana marble in the construction of buildings. It has been supposed that the Taj was, in part at least, the work of French or Italian experts.
The most outstanding feature of this city was the Red Fort, containing fifty palaces. However, only 20 of these palaces have survived. This Fort was modelled on the pattern of the Agra Fort and had three gateways. The Fort has a private and a public Darbar Hall, in addition to private enclosures for residential purposes of the royal family. Its foundation was laid in A. This mosque was meant for the ceremonial attendance of Shah Jahan and his courtiers. Nevertheless the perfection of proportions and the harmony of constructive designs make it one of the purest and most elegant building of its class to be found anywhere.
This mosque was built by Shah Jahan in honour of his daughter Jahanara. It measures feet by feet with three bulbous domes of Central Asian design. It has been described as the loveliest house of prayer in the world. The critics have found in it the Mughal style on the height of glory on account of flawless quality of the material and the modulated disposition of its elements with skill. It appears like a pearl when looked at within, with its white marble veined in blue, grey and white.
The subordination and contrast of entrance archways to the arcading of the sanctuary, the proportions and arrangement of the kiosks surmounting the cornices, and notably, the subtle raising of the drum of the centre dome in relation to those of either side, are only a few of the aspects of this structure which show in a more emphatic manner that the principles of balance and rhythm were, by this time, thoroughly appreciated by the Mughal builders.
It has five compartments, each having a dome, and an opening upon a court-yard. At each corner of the quadrangle a minaret of great height have been provided. This building is elaborately decorated with sparkling mosaics of glass, or small convex mirrors of different colours, set in arabesque pattern of white cement, presenting a most brilliant and gorgeous spectacle. It was built by Shah Jahan as a mausoleum of his favorite queen Mumtaz Mahal. It was built at the cost of 55 lakhs rupees and is considered to be the finest flower of Mughal art and most glorious monument of conjugal love, harmony and fidelity in the world.
The main gate of the Taj standing on a platform feet square is three storeyed building. It is built of pure white marble with a great tomb on the centre over the tomb, surrounded by four smaller domes of the chapel in the four corners of the building. Four minarets stand at the angle of the terrace.
Shah Jahan: Creator of the Taj Mahal and One of the Most Powerful Mughal Emperors
The whole of the interior is exquisitely decorated with perfectly laid outside. Supremely and thus deceptively beautiful, the Taj points back to what was, but will never be again, and points forward to what will have to be. In its reference to the past, it looks back over its shoulder, as it were, but never changes its direction which is down. Shah Jahan was such a man. The Taj Mahal, the sacred shrine in which he guarded the passionate Love—Attachment of his early years, stands in a category by itself.
Most of his Other buildings show unmistakable signs of an age of decadence of graceful dilettante accomplishments and intellectual flabbiness.
Mughal Empire - New World Encyclopedia
Another remarkable feature namely, a mixture of Hindu-Muslim style which is so prominent in the buildings of Akbar and Jahangir is much less evident in the architectural works of Shah Jahan. Aurangzeb was a puritan, who had no love for art, which according to him was nothing but idolatry and vanity. It was most probably meant for the private use of the Emperor and the ladies of the harem. It has three ribbed domes with rather elongated kalasai, three cusped arches and two aisles.
The whole mosque is built of white and grey marble. Another building of note constructed by Aurangzeb is the tomb of his queen Rabia-ud-Durrani at Aurangabad in the Deccan. This building built in A. The floral panels on the iron doors whose borders too are beautifully chiselled furnish an example of first-rate ornamentation in metal.
These include Bndshahi mosque at Lahore, a building known for its sound construction and great size. Justice was provided to the common man. Numerous civil works were carried out during his short reign; planting of trees, wells and building of Sarai inns for travellers was done. Roads were laid; it was under his rule that the Grand Trunk road from Delhi to Kabul was built. The currency was also changed to finely minted silver coins called Dam. However, Sher Shah did not survive long after his accession on the throne and died in after a short reign of five years.
Humayun's heir, Akbar, was born in exile and was only 13 years old when his father died.
Akbar's reign holds a certain prominence in history; he was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After a series of conquests, he managed to subdue most of India. Areas not under the empire were designated as tributaries. He also adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Rajputs, hence reducing any threat from them. Akbar was not only a great conqueror, but a capable organizer and a great administrator as well.
He set up a host of institutions that proved to be the foundation of an administrative system that operated even in British India. Akbar's rule also stands out due to his liberal policies towards the non-Muslims, his religious innovations, the land revenue system and his famous Mansabdari system. Akbar's Mansabdari system became the basis of Mughal military organization and civil administration. Akbar died innearly 50 years after his ascension to the throne, and was buried outside of Agra at Sikandra.
His son Jehangir then assumed the throne. Akbar was succeeded by his son, Salim, who took the title of Jehangir, meaning "Conqueror of the World". He married Mehr-un-Nisa whom he gave the title of Nur Jahan light of the world.
He loved her with blind passion and handed over the complete reins of administration to her.