Relationship between Man and Environment
Environmentalism included both environmental determinism and the environmentalist definition of geography as the study of man-environment relationships. PERMANENCIA DEL DETERMINISMO GEOGRAFICO EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE. Determinism is the philosophical idea that all events, including moral choices, are determined Hard determinism is a position on the relationship of determinism to free will. also, implying that the future is determined completely by preceding events—a combination of prior states of the universe and the laws of nature. Palabras clave: determinismo, hombre–medio, impacto humano, .. than as the study of environmental influence on humans or human impacts on .. We now realize that human–environment relationships are complex and.
Intervention with Biogeochemical Cycles: C, O2, N2, P, S and trace element cycles maintaining the steady state environmental conditions and, therefore, sustaining life on earth, have been drastically interfered by man for need as well as greed.
Pollution of the Environment: Anthropogenic pollution of air, water and land has taken colossal dimensions. Man is constantly increasing the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Comfort seeking modern humans are paving the way of O3 layer depletion through CFCs.
Man is dumping industrial and city sewage wastes into lakes, rivers and seas. Toxic chemicals used in modern agriculture for combating pests, diseases and weeds plus synthetic fertilizers are silently killing useful microbes maintaining the biogeochemical cycles, useful insects, birds, butterflies of the forests and fishes in the streams and lakes. At least five activities of man may lead to global cataclysm killing all life on the earth: Continuous Greenhouse Gas Emission: Hazardous Chemicals of Agriculture and Industry: More thanXenobiotic chemicals are now being used.
Many of these are recalcitrant compounds. They are accumulating in the environment causing threat of cancer epidemics and total extinction of birds, fishes, butterflies, bees and trillions of soil microbes essential for geo-chemical cycles.
Several countries possess nuclear bombs with efficient delivery system for target sites. If 10 of megaton bombs are exploded in different parts of the world, whole fabrics of life-forms including man will be extinct. Nuclear wastes generated in reactors are real threat to life on earth. Plutonium produced in reactors are used in bombs.
It has half life of 24, years and after that half of it decays to U with a half-life ofyears. We have accumulatedkg of plutomum. Even if bombs are not made and those already existing are dismantled anotherkg of Plutonium — what to do with these wastes? The deliberate production of extremely powerful disease-producing bacteria, viruses or fungi for biological warfare is another great environment threat to mankind.
These super-powered pathogens, when released, will disseminate through air or water and can cause catastrophic epidemics to man and his domestic animals.
Man—supposedly the most intelligent life-form—by misuse and over-use of science and technology has become the potential terminator of mankind and other life-forms. Gaia theory suggests cooperation between men of different nations for not allowing further pollution and cooperative approach for ameliorating the pollutants already accumulated.
On the whole, the environmental problems can only be solved through development. But that development, producing more food and drawing on the still great resources of the planet, needs to be environmentally wise, and to be based upon thorough evaluation of the potential uses of the different regions of this highly variable earth.
Short-term solutions may all too easily—as they have in many countries—lead to long-term losses which a growing world population cannot afford. Traditionally, MAB has involved research by interdisciplinary teams on ecological and social systems, field training and the application of a system approach to understanding the relationship between natural and human components of development. Today, the overall goal of MAB is to help establish the scientific basis for sustainable development and to assist countries in the development of their human resources.
Although there were 14 defined areas of research, the financial and human resources of MAB were concentrated—more or less—on the following main areas for the initial phase of the programme- Coastal areas and islands, humid and sub-humid tropics, arid and semiarid zones, temperate and cold zones, urban systems, and biosphere reserves.
Some of the more notable and recent achievements of MAB includes: MAB evolved, through the work in biosphere reserves and specialized projects, interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral approaches to sustainable development, indifferent ecological and socio-cultural settings, including arid and semi-arid zones, Mediterranean systems, small islands, mountain areas etc.
These advancements allowed for more permanent settlements, which led to rapid population growth and a distancing from nature. As society evolved, populations grew and more and more resources were required to fuel the expansion.
With breakthroughs in agriculture, settlements became more permanent and cities began to take shape. This shift to city life inadvertently led to a distancing from nature. While many people were still in-tune with nature on a subsistent level, the need for more and more resources began to change our regard for nature. Although our distancing from nature began several thousand years ago with advancements in agriculture and social order, it is the age of industry to which we owe our modern regard for nature.
The growth of cities allowed for a separation between people and nature and our obsession with convenience and efficiency beckoned a new perspective on the environment. With technological advancements, nature became something we were no longer apart of and entirely subject to, but something that we could control and profit off of.
The growth of industry enabled humans to truly dominate the landscape and disrupt the natural systems that have been in place for billions of years. As we have removed ourselves further and further from nature, we have developed a willing ignorance of our role and relationship within it.
With the growth of cities and trade we have moved from a subsistent, sustainable economy to one of greed and exploitation. Humans have always had an impact on the environment, but with the age of industry that impact has been ultra-magnified. Population growth has been exponentiated, cities have become the primary place of residence, and the majority of the world is now out of touch with the workings of nature.
Although every species plays a unique role in the biosphere and inherently has its own impact, not every species has the cognitive ability to measure their influence or the capacity to change it.
Humans are unique in that respect, which is the root of the problem. We know we are crippling the environment. We have the ability to do something about it. Therefore, we should make change where change is necessary.
Economy The size of our population and its incessant desire to expand has an obvious impact on the environment. However, that impact is magnified with the demands of industry and capitalism. In his book, Regarding Nature, Andrew McLaughlin identifies industrialism and the capitalist mindset as being especially influential on our regard for nature: Further causing a perceived division from nature is the economic structure we have allowed to infect most of the world.
Relationship between Man and Environment
Our relationship with nature has now become purely economic. We do not associate ourselves as a part of nature because we use it for profit.
Forests are cut down for the profits of the lumber industry and to make room for livestock.
Animals that we are undoubtedly related to, that have senses and the ability to socialize are slaughtered by the billions to feed an increasingly carnivorous population. Resources such as oil and food are all unevenly distributed throughout the world and therefore used as a platform for profit. All the while the environment bears the grunt of our greed. In order to reconstruct our views of nature and understand our place within it, it is important to reconsider our relationship with each other and our surroundings.
We have to consider ourselves as part of a bigger picture. Industry and capitalism rely heavily on ignorance and individualism. However, the reality is that we are all dependent upon each other in one way or another. Time for Change Humans play a vital role in nature just like everything else.
What separates us from nature though, is the ability to understand our place within it. This cognitive capacity of ours has historically been the cause of a perceived division between man and nature. However, in order to achieve a sustainable future in which humans assume a more natural role and have less of an impact it is imperative that we reconsider our role and relationship with nature.
A change in the way we regard nature has obvious political, economic, and social repercussions, but our cognitive ability obliges us to reevaluate our position in the world rather than continue to degrade it.
There are a number of ways in which we can begin to reconsider our relationship with nature, but all of which require an enormous effort. Through a universal education curriculum, it is possible to encourage people everywhere to consider themselves as part of a larger picture.
By teaching people about the environment, evolution, and ecology, we can provide them with the tools for change. Lewis Mumford imagined a social revolution brought about by a change in values through educational reform: In order to bring about necessary change it is critical that people take action. Through a universal environmental education program it is possible to galvanize people into forming new ideas and opinions of the world and to understand their place within it.
A universal education program would go a long way in encouraging change in how we view each other and our environment. Changing attitudes are a primary component in achieving a sustainable future — one in which nature is allowed to run its course without human intervention.