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LoC,India-Pakistan ties,Line of Control Line of Control (LoC; effectively the border between the two countries) on fire with near daily clashes. Will a shift in the U.S.-Pakistan relationship affect India-Pakistan with a de facto border — the Line of Control (LoC) — dividing the two sides. Tensions soar along India, Pakistan border in Kashmir so-called Line of Control (LoC), the military demarcation between the Indian and Pakistani has caused further turbulence in the relations between India and Pakistan.
Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India. A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity.
On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more.
Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr.
A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists.
No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades".
Tensions soar along India, Pakistan border in Kashmir
India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations. The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan.
After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight. The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly.
Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.
The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots. Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts.
Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident. This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack.
Tensions soar along India, Pakistan border in Kashmir | India News | Al Jazeera
At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national.
This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets. They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons.
InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons. Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government.
Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities. Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations.
They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations. The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks.
Line of Control - Wikipedia
In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused. The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue. It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied. In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security.
Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.
A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations.
The talks fell through. On 20 Junewith a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in Maythe Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gahhis place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him. There are two main reasons for this: The TV anchors fired more jingoistic missiles than the two militaries, creating a frenzy.
Besides the firing across the LoC, there were few militant attacks inside Kashmir Valley, and outside for example in Pathankot. Whether rest of the world believes this narrative or not, today most within Pakistan are convinced that India is sponsoring terrorism in Pakistan through Afghan intelligence agencies.
Despite the above, the State in India and Pakistan did not escalate the situation further. The situation has been restricted only to the LoC; it did not escalate to other parts of the bilateral border between the two countries across Punjab.
For both countries, the existing situation is a Slow Burn, which does not hurt the respective Establishment.A history of the Kashmir conflict - The Economist
Lack of formal contacts does not hurt either If the existing level of military engagement across the LoC does not hurt them, the lack of formal relationship does not hurt the State either.
The bilateral relationship between the two countries has been restricted to minimal in the last two decades. The informal and illegal trade between the two countries has always been huge and more than the formal trade. The bilateral contacts had come to a trickle long before; the air connections became twice a week and that too declined further.
There is no big ticket item — trade or culture, between the two countries that gets really affected with an Indo-Pak Slow Burn. Imagine a situation between Germany and France today, in which the borders are being closed for a week. From tourism to trade, students to businessmen, local communities along the border to political communities around the capitals — will go on a large scale rampage.
The reason is simple — the contacts between the two countries are so intertwined that any disruption would create a huge cost. Unfortunately, in the Indo-Pak context, the disruption would not matter, as both countries have been steadily shrinking their contacts. China and the US If the bilateral engagements or the lack of it between India and Pakistan does not hurt the two countries, their engagement with extra-regional powers encourages them further.
This section also believes that Pakistan occupies a geo-strategic position, which would see through Pakistan economically and strategically. While Obama played a low profile, statements from Trump administration has catapulted India into a different league. Weak Regional Architecture To get back to the France-German example, would the EU have allowed a deterioration of relations between the two countries?
In fact, it is the opposite; the Indo-Pak differences are weakening the regional association. None of the other countries in the SAARC would like to exert any pressure in bringing the two countries back into the regional fold.
They neither have the political clout, nor the economic leverage.
The political affiliation and ideologies also differ between Jammu region and Kashmir valley. The only positive happening, although limited has been the cross-LoC linkages. Though started with a lot of expectations, cross-LoC trade and bus service, instead of expanding further, have become a bureaucratic playground. Will the relations improve in ? This year will be an election one for Pakistan.
The political parties are likely to be focused on winning the elections, than improving bilateral relations. As a result, both the Parliament and the ruling government has abrogated their foreign policy making powers to the military. Though historically, the Deep State had its own influence, the present Parliament and the PML-N government should have been the weakest during the last three decades. On the Indian side, Narendra Modi did make a few attempts to build a new narrative.