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Faces of Suicide - remembering those that left before their time. promoting peace in their communities, bridging youth-police relations, and modeling I invite you to stand with us as we double down on our commitment to young people, Our phenomenal Mikva staff builds TRUST every day with youth , not only through intensive youth Lauren Young .. AJ Goulding . Christina Perez. I want to get into a relationship for the right reasons, and I want to be with the There's no point rushing something I trust will eventually find its way to me. AJ Perez+Lauren Young ~?Dreaming of You to be Mine Forever?~.
By doing so, research would better connect organizational changes i. Although many disciplines recognize the value of experimental and quasi-experimental designs with longitudinal data for making strong causal claims, research in the work—family field very rarely utilizes these designs when investigating work—family initiatives.
While there are some exceptions of studies based on longitudinal data in the work—family field e. The vast majority of studies employ cross-sectional data because it is easier to collect from employees and organizations. Yet studies of other worksite interventions—notably health promotion programs—often involve longitudinal data and quasi-experimental or experimental designs with randomized assignment to treatment even when the intervention targets the broader work environment as well as individual behaviors e.
Because the topic at hand is determining the effects of work—family initiatives for employees and organizations, we consider these types of research designs as an ideal for moving both research and practice forward. In the following sections, we describe our strategy for identifying the relevant literature and the terminology that we employ in this article.
We then provide a critical review of literature examining the effects of work—family initiatives on work—family conflict and enrichment, including directions for future research. Next we turn to a critical review of academic research on the work-related and business outcomes of work—family conflict and work—family initiatives, including directions for future research. Finally, we summarize our conceptual contributions and discuss the rewards and challenges of moving this field forward.
Review Methodology and Terminology Because research on the consequences of work and family policies has been conducted by researchers in a number of disciplines, our review was deliberately interdisciplinary. The review was conducted by authors representing organizational sociology, human resources, organizational behavior, industrial-organizational psychology, economics, and public health. We concentrated on empirical articles in peer-reviewed journals that have been published between to with some additional studies published in and earlybut also included key reviews and theoretical articles.
For the first question about the effects of work—family initiatives on work—family conflict and enrichment, the search strategy was to identify articles that included both an organizational independent variable including specific work—family policies, work—family supports, or the work—family culture and the descriptor work—family relationship which encompasses work—family conflict and related terms as the dependent variable.
A subset of authors reviewed abstracts and then identified articles that addressed modifiable work conditions and their impact on the work—family interface. These authors read and summarized these articles and we concentrate here on the 73 articles rated as most relevant to this question. A second subset of authors reviewed abstracts and then identified articles that address our specific concerns.
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We concentrate here on the 82 articles rated by these authors as most relevant to this question. Because of the wide variation in research design, conceptualization, measurement, and analytic strategies, it is not possible to make formal comparisons or perform a meta-analysis on these articles.
Instead we conducted a broad, critical review and supplement that with our assessment of future directions for the field. Before beginning that review, we clarify our use of key terms. Note that we define family quite broadly, to include spouses, extended family, and other close relationships, as well as children. This broad understanding means that work—family issues are relevant to a broad cross-section of the workforce, but may exclude employees with important non-work concerns such as continuing education or a volunteer commitment.
Work—family initiatives include the familiar work-life policies and benefits such as family leaves, flexible work arrangements, and dependent care supports that have been widely adopted in many organizations. We also include work redesign initiatives that ask employees to look at the way work is performed and coordinated in order to identify concrete changes e. The term work—family interventions may also be used to refer to these deliberate organizational changes; however, intervention terminology is much more familiar to public health scholars than to management scholars and so we do not use it here.
Work—family conflict is probably the most frequently studied construct in the work—family field. Work—family conflict is understood as a type of inter-role conflict that occurs when role demands in one domain i.
The intervention was aimed at Year 8 girls who were due to be invited to receive the HPV vaccine. A standard invitation arm comprised girls being provided with an information leaflet about the HPV vaccine and a consent form from the school, which they were asked to hand deliver to their parents and return before a prescribed date. Girls in the incentive intervention arm received the standard invitation.
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Eligibility for entry into the prize draw was dependent on consent form return only, not vaccine receipt. Girls were eligible regardless of whether their returned form granted consent or not. All girls who returned their consent form were entered into a prize draw for each school, with girls having a 1 in 10 chance of winning. The draw was made following the first dose of the HPV vaccine, as all consent forms had to be returned by this point.
Procedure and outcomes We approached all secondary schools in participating boroughs initially via email and then by telephone.
Participating schools informed parents that they could opt out of the study. A statistician used computer generated random numbers to allocate schools into each arm using blocked randomisation. Schools were not blind to allocation. We sent schools randomised to the incentive intervention arm the intervention letter to give to their eligible students and form tutors told their female students that they could be eligible for an incentive.The truth about actress Lauren Young
Concurrently, parents in both arms were asked to consent to their daughter having the HPV vaccine as part of the routine immunisation programme, as per the standard invitation intervention, with vaccination occurring in the next 2—3 weeks.
School administrative staff assigned an anonymised identifier to participating girls and collected data on whether participating girls returned their consent forms and whether consent was given for vaccination.
They provided these data to researchers anonymised, along with a marker of deprivation index of multiple deprivation quintile, IMDbased on postcode, for each girl. Teachers asked girls to complete a questionnaire during school hours within a week of vaccination day, and the school sent parents a questionnaire to complete.
Parent questionnaires were returned directly to researchers in postage paid envelopes. We collected data on response rates to questionnaires and data completeness. Girls in the incentive arm were also asked about possible unintended consequences of the intervention i.
Girls reported their religion based on Office for National Statistics,strength of any religious faith European Social Survey and migration status whether they and their parents were born in the United Kingdom; adapted from Marlow et al Full details of the questionnaire items are provided in Supplementary Material.
We generated items for the present study, unless specified. The sample size was based on being able to estimate feasibility outcomes. On average, in participating boroughs there were around girls in Year 8 per school. It was not an objective of this feasibility study to estimate the intracluster correlation as the number of clusters would be too small.
Analysis The analyst was blind to group allocation until analysis was complete. Missing items were left as missing if they were not part of a scale or if a questionnaire was not returned. Participation and response rates are presented by arm and the characteristics of participating and non-participating schools are described. School and girl demographic characteristics are presented by arm. The proportion of missing datum for consent form return, vaccination status, IMD and ethnicity are described.
Multivariable-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of girls and parents missing at least one questionnaire item, among those who returned a questionnaire. A trial management group was consulted at the beginning and end of the study.