Alexander von Humboldt - Wikipedia
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Goethe had developed his own extensive theories on comparative anatomy. Working before Darwin, he believed that animals had an internal force, an urform, that gave them a basic shape and then they were further adapted to their environment by an external force.
Humboldt urged him to publish his theories. Together the two discussed and expanded these ideas. Goethe and Humboldt soon became close friends.
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Humboldt would often return to Jena in the years that followed. Goethe remarked about Humboldt to friends that he had never met anyone so versatile. Humboldt's drive served as an inspiration for Goethe. InHumboldt returned to Jena for three months.
During this time Goethe moved from his residence in Weimar to reside in Jena. Together Humboldt and Goethe would attend university lectures on anatomy and conduct their own experiments.
One experiment involved hooking up a frog leg to various metals. They found no effect until the moisture of Humboldt's breath triggered a reaction that caused the frog leg to leap off the table. Humboldt would describe this as one of his favorite experiments because it was as if he was "breathing life into" the leg. Humboldt obtained their corpses and analyzed them in the anatomy tower of the university. Goethe and Schiller were the key figures at the time.
Humboldt contributed 7 June to Schiller's new periodical, Die Horen, a philosophical allegory entitled Die Lebenskraft, oder der rhodische Genius. Although this service to the state was regarded by him as only an apprenticeship to the service of science, he fulfilled its duties with such conspicuous ability that not only did he rise rapidly to the highest post in his department, but he was also entrusted with several important diplomatic missions.
Neither brother attended the funeral. Humboldt was able to spend more time on writing up his research. Spanish American expedition, —[ edit ] Alexander von Humboldt's Latin American expedition Seeking a foreign expedition[ edit ] With the financial resources to finance his scientific travels, he sought a ship on a major expedition.
Meantime, he went to Paris where his brother Wilhelm was now living. Paris was a great center of scientific learning and his brother and sister-in-law Caroline were well connected in those circles.
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville urged Humboldt to accompany him on a major expedition, likely to last five years, but the French revolutionary Directoire placed Nicolas Baudin at the head of it rather than the aging scientific traveler.
He had already selected scientific instruments for his voyage. Discouraged, the two left Paris for Marseilleswhere they hoped to join Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt. But North Africans were in revolt against the French invasion in Egypt and French authorities refused permission to travel. Humboldt and Bonpland eventually found their way to Madridwhere their luck changed spectacularly. Baron Forell had an interest in mineralogy and science endeavors and inclined to help Humboldt.
The Bourbon Reforms sought to reform administration of the realms and revitalize their economies. For Humboldt, "the confluent effect of the Bourbon revolution in government and the Spanish Enlightenment had created ideal conditions for his venture. These were lengthy, state-sponsored enterprises to gather information about plants and animals from the Spanish realms, assess economic possibilities, and provide plants and seeds for the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid founded Spain under the Hapsburg monarchy had guarded its realms against foreigner travelers and intruders.
The Bourbon monarch was open to Humboldt's proposal. With Humboldt's experience working for the absolutist Prussian monarchy as a government mining official, Humboldt had both the academic training and experience of working well within a bureaucratic structure. Oil painting by Eduard Ender Humboldt had not mapped out a specific plan of exploration, so that the change did not upend a fixed itinerary. He later wrote that the diversion to Venezuela made possible his explorations along the Orinoco River to the border of Portuguese Brazil.
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With the diversion, the Pizarro encountered two large dugout canoes each carrying 18 Guayaqui Indians. The Pizarro's captain accepted the offer of one of them to serve as pilot.
Humboldt hired this Indian, named Carlos del Pino, as a guide.
Cacao plantations were the most profitable as world demand for chocolate rose. Also described the Guanoco asphalt lake as "The spring of the good priest" "Quelle des guten Priesters". Around 19 MarchHumboldt and Bonpland discovered dangerous electric eelswhose shock could kill a man. To catch them, locals suggested they drive wild horses into the river, which brought the eels out from the river mud, and resulted in a violent confrontation of eels and horses, some of which died.
Humboldt and Bonpland captured and dissected some eels, which retained their ability to shock; both received potentially dangerous electric shocks during their investigations.
The encounter made Humboldt think more deeply about electricity and magnetism, typical of his ability to extrapolate from an observation to more general principles.
Humboldt laid to rest the persistent myth of Walter Raleigh 's Lake Parime by proposing that the seasonal flooding of the Rupununi savannah had been misidentified as a lake. Humboldt, who was already in Cuba, interceded with crown officials in Havana, as well as giving them money and clothing.
Fraser obtained permission to remain in Cuba and explore. Humboldt entrusted Fraser with taking two cases of Humboldt and Bonpland's botanical specimens to England when he returned, for eventual conveyance to the German botantist Willdenow in Berlin.
Humboldt is considered to be the "second discoverer of Cuba" due to the scientific and social research he conducted on this Spanish colony. During an initial three-month stay at Havanahis first tasks were to properly survey that city and the nearby towns of GuanabacoaRegla and Bejucal. Those three areas were, at the time, the first frontier of sugar production in the island. During those trips, Humboldt collected statistical information on Cuba's population, production, technology and trade, and with Arango, made suggestions for enhancing them.
He predicted that the agricultural and commercial potential of Cuba was huge and could be vastly improved with proper leadership in the future. On their way back to Europe from Mexico on their way to the United States, Humboldt and Bonpland stopped again in Cuba, leaving from the port of Veracruz and arriving in Cuba on 7 Januarystaying until 29 April In Cuba, he collected plant material and made extensive notes.
Mutis was generous with his time and gave Humboldt access to the huge pictorial record he had compiled since This type of careful recording meant that even if specimens were not available to study at a distance, "because the images traveled, the botanists did not have to. This was a world record at the time, but a thousand feet short of the summit.
Since Acapulco was the main west coast port and the terminus of the Asian trade from the Spanish Philippines, having accurate maps of its location was extremely important. Humboldt set up his instruments, surveying the deep water bay of Acapulco, to determine its longitude. Andrew Jaffe, the hunter At a previous job, I was sending cold outreach emails. Another time, I was cold calling leads when I reached a guy who must have had a bad day.
I got off that call feeling like a punching bag. Kristine Hankins, the runner My first job out of college was in cold calling.11. Listen to the Scientists:Relationship-Science to Government
You got the usual people who would screen their calls only to respond to your email the next minute, and the people who just wanted to talk but would never let you get a word in edgewise. One time, though, I got a very different response.
I hung up before I could hear his full pickup line. Alina Kors, the hacker This story is a cold calling nightmare for the recipient, but a win for me! Most of the major corporations I used to call at my old job use the same directory system, called Audix. All of a sudden everyone was exposed, and they were all taking our calls! On one call, though, the person I was calling decided to turn the tables.
While on the call, he actually sent me a LinkedIn request to connect.
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I can understand wanting to view my profile, but to actually connect during our first introduction? It was a bit…intense. Mark Bechhofer, the mentor At an old job, I had a young trainee starting her first week of calls. Sitting next to me, she made the first call.