What is the difference between content and process theory? - catchsomeair.us Specialties
They are the process theories and the content theories. Content theories address what factors motivate people. Research has identified the distinct relationship between motivation and behavior. In this regard the process and content theories can provide a helpful framework to initiate discussion and. Expectancy and equity theories have become a part of compensation curricula Process Theories Of Motivation Process theories attempt to explain how behavior is One finding of the research is the relationship of task difficulty and effort. Next page Contents page Previous page We can also have process theories, which are concerned with the thought processes that Vroom suggested that the relationship between people's behaviour at work and their goals Equity theory thus helps explain why pay and conditions alone do not determine motivation.
This theory states that workers will only act when they have a reasonable expectation that their work will lead to the desired outcome. They need to believe that they possess the necessary ability and skill to achieve the given goal.
Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organisation will be motivated when they believe that: Vroom realised that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. In order to enhance performance managers should use reward systems that tie rewards very closely to performance.
Practical measures based on expectancy theory Work out which outcomes are valued by employees Decide what kind of performance is required from employees Ensure that the desired level of performance is achievable Tie in the desired outcomes with the desired performance Check the situation for any conflicting expectancies Ensure that the outcomes are seen as sufficient reward Check that the system is fair and seen to be fair These precepts can be translated into practical measures Pay and reward systems should be designed, which reward performance efforts by employees Jobs must be flexibly designed to take account of the needs of employees Managers must be trained to set clear and achievable goals, which are clearly linked with the reward system, and to use positive reinforcement of desired responses Motivation throughout the organisation must be regularly monitored Flexibility should be built in to allow employees to choose their own rewards Nadler and Lawlor, Equity theory: There are similarities with previous theories of Maslow and Herzberg in that the theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors affect each individual's assessment and perception of their relationship with their work, and their employer.What is PROCESS THEORY? What does PROCESS THEORY mean? PROCESS THEORY meaning & explanation
In this particular model, there is emphasis on 'what is fair and reasonable'. As individuals, we seek a fair balance between what we put into our job and what we get out of it. Adams calls these inputs and outputs. Individuals form perceptions of what constitutes a fair balance or trade of inputs and outputs by comparing their own situation with colleagues, friends and partners in establishing benchmarks and their own responses to them.
Adams used the term 'referent' others to describe the reference points or people with whom we compare our own situation, which is the pivotal part of the theory. Equity theory thus helps explain why pay and conditions alone do not determine motivation. Equity does not depend on our input-to-output ratio alone, but also on comparison between an individual's ratio and the ratio of others. In practice, this helps to explain why people are so strongly affected by the situations and views and gossip of colleagues, friends, partners etc.
What is the difference between content and process theory?
Inputs Inputs are typically: People need to feel that there is a fair balance between inputs and outputs. Outputs are typically all financial rewards - pay, salary, expenses, bonus and commission - plus intangibles - recognition, reputation, praise, promotion, etc. If employees feel are that inputs are fairly and adequately rewarded by outputs the fairness benchmark being subjectively perceived from market norms and other comparables references then they are happy in our work and motivated to continue inputting at the same level.
If they feel that our inputs out-weigh the outputs then they become demotivated in relation to their job and employer and may feel a strong sense of injustice. People respond to this feeling in different ways: Some people reduce effort and application and become inwardly disgruntled, or outwardly difficult, recalcitrant or even disruptive.
Other people seek to improve the outputs by making claims or demands for more reward, or seeking an alternative job. For example, when a student who is usually late to class gets positive feedback when he arrives on time, the student becomes more and more punctual. Positive reinforcement motivates to get the anticipated reinforcement of required behaviour.
In this case the meal is a negative reinforcement because it eliminates the unpleasant state hunger. Contrary to positive and negative reinforcement, punishment can be undesired reinforcement, or reinforce undesired behaviour. For example, if a student is always late to class and thus he gets negative verbal feedback and also always has to tidy up the classroom at the end of the day, in this case the undesirable behaviour is reinforced with an undesirable reinforcer. The punishment declines the tendency to be late.
According to the theory, positive reinforcement is a much better motivational technique than punishment because punishment: Once certain behaviour has been conditioned through repetitive reinforcement, elimination of the reinforcement will decline the motivation to perform that behaviour.
Therefore it is better not to give a reward every time. Reinforcement in the workplace usually takes place on a partial or irregular reinforcement schedule, when reward is not given for every response.
The reinforcement theory is included in many other motivation theories. Reward must meet someone's needs, expectations, must be applied equitably, and must be consistent.
The desired behaviour must be clear and realistic, but the issue remains: Vroom's expectancy theory The expectancy theory places an emphasis on the process and on the content of motivation as well, and it integrates needs, equity and reinforcement theories. Victor Vroom's expectancy theory aims to explain how people choose from the available actions. Vroom defines motivation as a process that governs our choices among alternative forms of voluntary behaviour. The basic rationale of this theory is that motivation stems from the belief that decisions will have their desired outcomes.
The motivation to engage in an activity is determined by appraising three factors. These three factors are the following Figure 4: If you work harder, it will result in better performance.
In this case the question is: If you perform well, you will get reward. In this case the question is that: If one day I get a good grade and another day I get a bad grade for the same performance, then the motivation will decrease. Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation.
The Distinction between Content and Process Theories
This means that if any of these is zero, then the motivation to do something will be zero as well. Vroom's expectancy theory Source: For example if I think: The expectancy theory highlights individual differences in motivation and contains three useful factors for understanding and increasing motivation. Adams' equity theory The equity theory states that people are motivated if they are treated equitably, and receive what they consider fair for their effort and costs.
The theory was suggested by Adams and is based on Social Exchange theory. According to this theory, people compare their contribution to work, costs of their actions and the benefits that will result to the contribution and benefits of the reference person.