Bolivia country brief - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
The example of the ties between Bolivia and Cuba for integration and of the 35 th anniversary of the reestablishment of diplomatic relations. Putin's Children in Cuba, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Bolivia as the name indicates, follows the guidelines indicated by a family relationship. Bolivian relations with Chile have worsened since Bolivia instituted a In April , Bolivia signed a 'People's Trade Agreement' with Cuba.
The countries shall exchange comprehensive technology packages developed in their respective nations by the parties, in areas of common interest, which shall be provided for their use and implementation, based on the principles of mutual benefit. The countries shall work together, in coordination with other Latin American countries, to eradicate illiteracy in these nations, using efficient, tried and tested methods of mass application, which have been successfully used in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
The countries agree to make investments of mutual interest which could take the form of public, binational, mixed or cooperative companies, joint management projects or any other form of association that they decide to establish. Priority shall be given to the initiatives which strengthen the capacity for social inclusion, resource industrialization and food security, in a framework of respect and preservation of the environment.
The countries may agree to the opening of branches of state banks of one country in the national territory of another. In order to facilitate the payments and charges relating to the commercial and financial transactions between the countries, Reciprocal Credit Agreements shall be arranged between the banking institutions appointed by the governments to this effect.
The governments may use commercial compensation mechanisms of goods and services, if and when this is mutually convenient for the extension and reinforcement of the commercial exchange.
The governments shall promote the development of joint cultural projects which take into account the particular characteristics of the different regions and the cultural identity of the peoples. The governments shall reinforce cooperation in the field of communication, by taking any action necessary to strengthen their infrastructure capacities in respect of transmission, distribution, telecommunications, etc; and in respect of their informative, cultural and educational contents production capacities.
In this regard, the governments shall continue to support the space devoted to integrationist communication created by Telesur, by increasing its distribution in our countries, as well as its contents production capacities. The governments of Venezuela and Cuba acknowledge the special needs of Bolivia as a country whose natural resources were exploited and plundered during the centuries of colonial and neo-colonial rule.
The Parties shall exchange scientific and technical know-how with the aim of aiding the economic and social development of the three countries. Taking into account all of the above, the Government of the Republic of Cuba, the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia, have agreed upon the following actions: To create a non-profit Cuban-Bolivian entity which will provide free high quality ophthalmologic surgeries to all Bolivian citizens lacking the financial resources needed to cover the high cost of this service, thus preventing tens of thousands of poor Bolivians from loosing their sight or serious and often crippling limitations to their sight each year.
Cuba shall supply the most advanced technology equipment and the ophthalmologic specialists required in the initial stage who, with the support of young Bolivian doctors trained in the Latin American School of Medical Sciences ELAMworking as doctors in residence, or other doctors and residents from Bolivia or other countries, shall offer attentive care to the Bolivian patients.
Cuba shall pay the wages of the Cuban ophthalmologic specialists working in the framework of this action program. Bolivia shall provide the facilities necessary to render this service, be they buildings already used to provide healthcare or others adapted to this purpose. Cuba shall increase the number of ophthalmologic centres donated from three, the number initially offered in the Bilateral Agreement signed on December 30 of last year, to six.
Together they shall have the capacity to operate on at least thousand people each year. This capacity may be increased should the need arise. Cuba hereby reaffirms its offer to provide Bolivia with 5 thousand scholarships to train doctors and specialists in General Integral Medicine or other areas of Medical Science: Over the subsequent years the established quota shall be replenished with new students. Included in these new scholarships are some of the young Bolivians who are already studying Medicine in Schools of medical Science al over Cuba.
Peoples' Treaty of Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela | Transnational Institute
Cuba shall prolong the stay of the medical specialists who travelled to Bolivia as a result of the serious natural disaster which occurred in January of this year, affecting all the regions of the country, for as long as this sister nation deems necessary. Furthermore, it will donate 20 field hospitals equipped with surgical facilities, intensive care units, emergency services for patients suffering of cardiovascular accidents, laboratories and other medical resources, to be sent to the areas hardest hit by this disaster.
Cuba shall continue to provide Bolivia with the experience, didactic material and technical resources necessary to implement the literacy program in four languages: With regards to the education sector, the exchange and collaboration plan shall be extended to offer help in the methods, programs and techniques of the educational process of interest to the Bolivian party.
Cuba will share its energy-saving experiences with Bolivia and shall cooperate with this country on an energy-saving program that could yield significant convertible currency resources. During the investment recovery period, any state investment, investments made by Bolivian mixed companies or even those made with Bolivian private capital in Cuba will be tax-exempt.
AGENCIA CUBANA DE NOTICIAS
Cuba shall grant Bolivian airlines the same facilities provided to their Cuban counterparts, with regard to passenger transportation, freight to and from Cuba and the use of airport services or any other facilities, as well as the internal transportation of passengers and freight within Cuba.
The exportation of goods and services from Cuba may be paid for with Bolivian products, in the national currency of Bolivia or in other currencies mutually agreed upon. Venezuela shall encourage extensive collaboration in the energy and mining sector, including: Compensation mechanisms shall be established with Bolivian products so as to completely cancel all debts created by these services.
Technical assistance for the Bolivian Fiscal Oilfields YPFB and COMIBOL shall also be established, as shall the development of projects to adapt and extend infrastructures as well as petrochemical, iron and steel and chemical and industrial projects, and any other form of cooperation agreed upon by the parties.
During the investment recovery period, any state investment or investments made by Bolivian mixed companies in Venezuela shall be tax-exempt. Venezuela hereby reaffirms its offer to provide Bolivia with 5 scholarships in the different areas of interest for the productive and social development of the Republic of Bolivia.
Venezuela shall create a special fund of up to million dollars for Bolivia to use to finance productive and associated infrastructure projects. After a long period of instability marked by coups and military rule, democratic civilian rule was established in However, the proliferation of political parties since then has resulted in political fragmentation.
Organised labour has historically been strong, and capable of coordinating large demonstrations in support of improved salaries and conditions and at times in opposition to free-market reforms. The Catholic Church has played a significant intermediary role between the government and social groups. President Evo Morales has been in office in Bolivia since He is the first candidate of indigenous origin to have become President in Bolivia.
President Morales undertook constitutional reform in Bolivia, with a draft Constitution endorsed by a constituent assembly in Novemberand later approved by referendum with a 59 per cent majority in January The referendum promoted indigenous rights, limited private land holdings to hectares and lifted the ban on Presidents serving consecutive terms with two terms as a maximum.
InMorales won a third term in office, after the constitutional court ruled that his first term did not count, as it preceded the constitution. He received 60 per cent of the vote against 25 per cent for his closest rival. Coca in Bolivia is a highly sensitive issue. This was a move to reconcile the new Constitution with international commitments.
System of government Bolivia is a democratic republic with a directly elected President who serves a five-year term. Bolivia has a bicameral system of government: Recent developments In Februarya constitutional referendum which proposed removing Presidential term limits was voted down, In response to this, Morales' ruling party, the Movement Towards Socialism, asked the constitutional court to rule on lifting term limits. In NovemberBolivia's constitutional court lifted constitutional limits on re-election, claiming they violated the candidates' human rights.
Bilateral relations with Chile remain strained due to the lasting negative effects on Bolivia of the War of the Pacific inwhen it lost its access to the Pacific Ocean and became a landlocked country. Bolivian relations with Chile have worsened since Bolivia instituted a sea-access claim against Chile to the International Court of Justice in April In DecemberPresident Morales signed a protocol aimed at Bolivia's accession to the Southern Cone Common Market, Mercosur Latin American Regional Organisationswhich will provide Bolivia with preferential trade access to the markets of other member countries.
As a member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas ALBABolivia has aligned itself politically with other socialist-oriented governments in the region, including Venezuela and Cuba. The United States remains a significant trading partner for Bolivia, and in both countries signed a bilateral framework to normalise relations and pledged greater cooperation in addressing illegal drug trafficking.
The bilateral relationship between China and Bolivia is growing. Several high-level exchanges between the two countries have enhanced cooperation in the areas of trade, satellite training, construction and launch programs, culture, health and education. In MayBolivia and China agreed to cooperate on military, operational and logistics capabilities.
Bilateral relations An early link between Australia and Bolivia came about in when a squatter who had previously been in Bolivia established a sheep station in a locality in northern New South Wales.
The locality continues to be known as Bolivia. Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships and Endeavour Mobility Grants support two-way engagement between Australia and the rest of the world.