Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about . Key woRdS And ConCepTS: Ecological footprint, biocapacity, EF/BC accounting. The Ecological footprint collects data on the ecological assets that a I would like to find answers with questions such as: Which countries . We will explore relationships between Population and Total Ecological Footprint. These two concepts were developed by the. Global Footprint Network and are quantified as global hectares (gha); they are explained in more detail in the.
Despite being populated by relatively "mainstream" home-buyers, BedZED was found to have a footprint of 3. The report did not measure the added footprint of the 15, visitors who have toured BedZED since its completion in Findhorn Ecovillagea rural intentional community in MorayScotlandhad a total footprint of 2.
However, the residents alone have a footprint of 2. However this should not be surprising, since the two methods address different research questions.
Newman has argued that the ecological footprint concept may have an anti-urban bias, as it does not consider the opportunities created by urban growth. New York and Singapore respectively — may lead to the perception of these populations as "parasitic". This is because these communities have little intrinsic biocapacity, and instead must rely upon large hinterlands.
RPubs - Exploring Ecological Footprint and BioCapacity
Critics argue that this is a dubious characterization since mechanized rural farmers in developed nations may easily consume more resources than urban inhabitants, due to transportation requirements and the unavailability of economies of scale.
Furthermore, such moral conclusions seem to be an argument for autarky.
Some even take this train of thought a step further, claiming that the Footprint denies the benefits of trade. Therefore, the critics argue that the Footprint can only be applied globally. For example, replacing ancient woodlands or tropical forests with monoculture forests or plantations may improve the ecological footprint.
Similarly, if organic farming yields were lower than those of conventional methods, this could result in the former being "penalized" with a larger ecological footprint. If the use of ecological footprints are complemented with other indicators, such as one for biodiversitythe problem might be solved.
A life cycle analysis centered on the Swedish Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant estimated carbon dioxide emissions at 3. The net result of the study was that nuclear power produced 3.
Ecological footprint - Wikipedia
This compares to for natural gas and for coal according to this study. The study also concluded that nuclear power produced the smallest amount of CO2 of any of their electricity sources. The World Nuclear Association provides a comparison of deaths due to accidents among different forms of energy production.
In their comparison, deaths per TW-yr of electricity produced in UK and USA from to are quoted as for hydropower, for coal, 85 for natural gas, and 8 for nuclear. List of countries by ecological footprint The world-average ecological footprint in was 2.
There is also a high variation within countries, based on individual lifestyle and economic possibilities. It measures the requirements for productive areas croplands, grazing lands for animal products, forested areas to produce wood productsmarine areas for fisheriesbuilt-up land for housing and infrastructureand forested land needed to absorb carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption.
One hectare equals 2. The resulting figures can also be compared with how much productive area—or biocapacity—is available.
- Using the EF
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- Critiques of the EF
EF calculations have questioned the sustainability and equity of current consumption and production practices. The Global Footprint Network GFN —a nonprofit organization that partnered with hundreds of cities, businesses, and other entities to advance the EF as a metric of sustainability—calculates the per capita global footprint. In the per capita global footprint was 2. Since global biocapacity in was 1.
In other words, 1. The implication of such ecological overshoot, which began in the mids, is that life-supporting biological resources, such as fisheries, forest resources, rangeland, and agricultural land, are being depleted.
Per capita EFs show a wide divergence in the demands on nature from people in different societies, ranging from the United Arab Emirates at the high end These figures are the basis of claims such that if all of humanity consumed like the average American, five Earths would be needed.
EFs also vary greatly within countries according to level of affluence. Researchers have combined footprint analysis with measures of human development to assess whether countries are on track toward sustainable development —defined as a per capita EF lower than the available per capita biocapacity with a high rating above 0.
Environmental educators and activists have used the EF to raise awareness of unsustainable consumption patterns, often with the goal of encouraging a change in lifestyles and, less frequently, to promote awareness of wider structural forces driving such patterns.
Many online footprint calculators have appeared on nongovernmental organization Web sites with such goals in mind. Those calculators allow people to calculate their personal EF and to make comparisons with estimates of available biocapacity or to average footprints of other people locally and globally.